The symptoms of attention deficit syndrome are variable and not always clearly distinguishable. In contrast to the typical ADHD, patients do not exhibit hyperactivity or impulsiveness, but suffer mainly from psychological and social problems. The only thing that ADHD has in common with the other types of ADHD is the attention and concentration disorders.
However, these do not manifest themselves in ADHD through particularly conspicuous behaviour and are therefore often not noticed directly. The patients tend to be dreamy, introverted and are described as “hypoactive”, i.e. underactive. The symptoms are complex and much less conspicuous than in other types of ADHD. ADHD is therefore not always or often only diagnosed in adulthood.
Characteristic for the disease is the attention deficit disorder. This is the main symptom of the disease and is due to the limited ability to deal with incoming stimuli. Patients are overwhelmed and are unable to separate the important from the unimportant, so they experience a real stimulus satiation.
While in healthy people the brain automatically filters out unimportant stimuli, people with ADHD absorb far too much information simultaneously. This makes it difficult for them to concentrate, they become distracted, are quickly distracted and have problems listening and carrying out longer activities. They make careless mistakes and have difficulty following instructions.
The patients are disorganized, forgetful and quickly overtaxed. They often lose pens, keys and the like. The excessive demands caused by the amount of stimuli absorbed can occur in all forms of ADHD.
In contrast to the typical ADHD, however, people with ADHD do not react with external, but with inner restlessness. They appear rather quiet and dreamy, the mood changes often and supposedly without reason. They perform less well at school and at work, have problems with household chores and the rest of their everyday life is also difficult.
They tire quickly and are chronically exhausted. Establishing contacts and maintaining friendships is not easy for them either. Listening and responding to their counterpart is made difficult by their attention deficit disorder.
They cannot respond adequately or defend themselves with words. Patients therefore quickly feel misunderstood and react inappropriately. They are easily offended and like to withdraw.
Emotions are heightened and their mood changes between good mood and deep sadness in a very short time without any recognisable trigger. ADHD sufferers are therefore not characterised by the typical ADHD core symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsiveness, but by their social and psychological problems. The symptoms have existed since childhood, but are not always noticed.
Therefore, ADHD is often diagnosed late or not at all. The appearance of ADHD is very variable. Whether the symptoms are perceived as a disease or merely as personality traits depends on their severity.
ADS can appear in many different forms, from the slightest restrictions to the most severe mental disabilities. Only when patients feel significantly restricted by ADHD and suffer from it in several areas of their lives over a longer period of time, do the symptoms also have a so-called disease value, i.e. they are to be considered as a disease. In most cases, the affected persons themselves are not even aware of their illness.
As a result, they attribute failures and social difficulties to their own personality and suffer from low self-esteem. Psychological problems such as depression and anxiety disorders are therefore very common in ADD patients and it is not uncommon for these concomitant diseases to be diagnosed only after treatment. Failures and poor performance are by no means signs of reduced intelligence in ADHD.
This is not restricted in ADS patients. Compared to the normal population, they are even particularly gifted in creative areas. The constant processing of information allows the affected persons a flourishing imagination.
If they are particularly enthusiastic about one thing, they are very well able to ignore others and concentrate completely. If information is associated with strong emotions, it is recognized and stored as important instead of being overlooked and forgotten. In the right professional field, people with ADHD can therefore be very successful through their talents.
To recognize and promote these talents is one of the highest goals in treatment. Hypoactive describes a sub-activity. Although hypoactivity is not an official diagnostic criterion, it describes the appearance of ADHD quite clearly.
Due to the lack of filtering of the incoming stimuli and the impaired ability to concentrate, those affected are overtaxed. ADS patients are more introverted. They close themselves off from the outside world and thus also from being flooded with stimuli.
This often seems as if the affected people live in their own world. Instructions get through to them only with difficulty and tasks are fulfilled very slowly. Overtaxing and fear of failure often cause those affected to avoid unpleasant or unknown situations and tasks.
They often isolate themselves and remain passive until they are forced to act. Then, however, they overreact and possibly react aggressively. The suffering pressure caused by the hypoactive form of ADHD is very high in many patients.