The anus is the ring muscle at the end of the intestinal canal. It is used to control the retention and discharge of stool from the intestine.
Symptoms that can frequently occur on the anus are on the one hand pain, which in many cases is directly related to the bowel movement and can be of varying quality depending on the cause, for example stabbing or pulling. On the other hand, the anus can bleed, which can be recognised by blood adhering to the faeces or toilet paper. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for the anus to itch or burn, which is usually perceived as very unpleasant. The anus can also leak, which is also known as fecal incontinence.
Behind complaints of the anus there are often problems with excessively hard stool, which can cause permanent damage to the anus during defecation, for example cracking. Haemorrhoids are also often the cause of complaints of the anus. Certain skin diseases, such as psoriasis or neurodermatitis or infections with HPV or a skin fungus can be the cause.
Furthermore, in some cases allergic reactions to certain detergents or poor or excessive hygiene of the anus can cause problems. Diabetics are also more susceptible to complaints of the anus. In rare cases, a cancerous disease can be the cause of complaints of the anus.
The therapy of complaints of the anus depends primarily on the cause.
The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of a detailed survey of the symptoms, a subsequent physical examination and a more precise assessment, through a so-called endoscopic examination of the anus and rectum. In some cases, an examination of the stool or blood may also be helpful.
The prognosis depends very much on the cause, the treatment options and the success of the therapy. In most cases, however, the problems in the anus are well under control, which in some cases means permanent care of the anus.
For the prevention of anal discomfort, it helps to regulate bowel movements, i.e. to keep the stool soft and to ensure regular bowel movements, which is possible with a sufficient fluid intake and the ingestion of, for example, flea seeds. In addition, adequate hygiene is recommended, which means that the anus is regularly cleaned mainly with water and not with strong soaps.
The term anus preter is used to describe an artificially created intestinal outlet produced by a surgical procedure. In this operation, a section of the intestine upstream of the anus is chosen as the new end of the intestine and connected to a point on the abdominal wall so that the stool can now be discharged to the outside via it. The stool is usually collected in a plastic bag, which protects the anus from the environment.
It is stuck around the opening of the artificial bowel outlet in such a way that no abdominal skin comes into contact with the stool, as this could damage the skin. The anus preter requires special hygiene, which means changing the bag regularly and sterile cleaning of the area. Depending on the occasion, the anus preter is formed either by a part of the small intestine or the large intestine.
A distinction is made between a temporary form, which is returned to its original state after a certain time in a further operation, and a final form, which is usually chosen as the last possible treatment step. The reasons for the creation of an anus prater are different, for example a disturbance of the intestinal passage in the case of intestinal obstruction or the therapeutic removal of an irreversibly damaged intestinal section or an intestinal tumour or a function-limiting injury to the intestine, for example due to an accident. Even if an anus preter is a restriction in the daily life of the affected person, new bag systems are now available that make it easier to handle and thanks to the guidance of specialized therapists, the extensive care can also be well integrated into everyday life.