Because of the different types of allergies, there are also very different symptoms through which an allergy can manifest itself. Below is a list of all the main symptoms that can occur in the context of an allergy: Skin rash with and without itching Pimples Eczema scaly, dry skin Pustules Blisters Skin redness Hives Swelling of lips/tongue Swelling of the mucous membranes in the area of the respiratory tract up to shortness of breath and suffocation Running nose Coughing Sneezing Asthma attacks with sudden breathlessness Tearing eyes (with itching) Reddening of the conjunctiva (allergic conjunctivitis) Diarrhoea Vomiting Abdominal pain Anaphylactic shock (anaphylactic shock can be accompanied by many of the above symptoms. The additional symptoms mentioned here are circulatory symptoms that only occur in the context of anaphylactic shock, but not in the context of a “normal” allergic reaction) Blood pressure drop Heart palpitations (tachycardia) Loss of consciousness up to loss of consciousness The typical symptoms/leading symptoms of the allergy manifest themselves on the skin, eyes, airways and intestines.
The allergy symptoms include sneezing attacks, itching and reddening of the skin and eyes, wheals on the skin, diarrhoea, breathing difficulties and coughing. Depending on the organism and the type of allergy, these symptoms occur individually or in combination. In respiratory illnesses caused by an allergy, symptoms such as shortness of breath, sneezing and “hay fever” (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis) with running nose and watery, itchy eyes occur.
A swelling of the palate can also occur, and sore throats due to an allergy are also possible. Food allergies can manifest themselves through symptoms on the skin (redness, itching), intestines (diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, diarrhoea) or respiratory tract (shortness of breath, feeling of suffocation). Allergic skin diseases include urticaria (itchy wheals), neurodermatitis/atopic dermatitis (itchy, reddened skin rash on typical body parts) and contact dermatitis (very itchy skin change at the site of allergen contact).
In principle, allergies to drugs can trigger symptoms in any organ. The skin is most frequently affected. The maximum expression of an allergic reaction is called anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock.
This is an allergy-related acute, life-threatening reaction of the system that begins with the above-mentioned symptoms. With increasing severity, a drop in blood pressure, tachycardia and unconsciousness are added. Without treatment, this reaction eventually results in circulatory and respiratory arrest.
- Skin rash with and without itching spots eczema scaly, dry skin pustules blisters reddened skin wheals
- Scaly, dry skin
- Skin redness
- Swelling of lips/tongue
- Swelling of the mucous membranes in the area of the respiratory tract up to shortness of breath and suffocation
- Running nose
- Coughing, sneezing
- Asthma attacks with sudden shortness of breath
- Watering eyes (with itching)
- Reddening of the conjunctiva (allergic conjunctivitis)
- Abdominal pain
- Anaphylactic shock (an anaphylactic shock can be accompanied by many of the symptoms mentioned above. The additional symptoms mentioned here are circulatory symptoms that only occur in the context of anaphylactic shock, but not in the context of a “normal” allergic reaction) Blood pressure drop (tachycardia)
- Blood pressure drop
- Reduction of consciousness up to loss of consciousness
- Scaly, dry skin
- Skin redness
- Blood pressure drop
- Reduction of consciousness up to loss of consciousness
Skin rash is a relatively typical symptom of an allergy. Especially contact allergies lead to skin rashes.
A contact allergy occurs when the skin is hypersensitive to repeated contact with a certain allergen and the immune system thus triggers an allergic reaction in the sense of hypersensitivity. Typical triggers of a contact allergy are, for example, nickel, fragrances or latex. However, food allergies or drug allergies can also be accompanied by skin rashes.
Another very typical allergy agent that causes skin rashes is hives (urticaria). Allergies can lead to various forms of skin rash. From single grouped standing pimples, to blowing or blistering, to dry, scaly skin or wheals.
Very often an allergic skin rash is accompanied by severe and agonizing itching. An allergy can cause many different types of rash. Contact allergies can lead to the formation of pustules, for example.
But hives is also a typical allergic symptom. This leads to the formation of wheals which are usually accompanied by severe itching. This is called urticaria.
Often the cause of such urticaria cannot be found. It can occur again and again over days, weeks and months. In most cases, antiallergic therapy with antihistamines can help.
An eczema or eczematous skin rash is a relatively common allergy symptom. It occurs as so-called allergic contact eczema. This type of allergy is a delayed-type allergy.
The body’s reaction to the allergen is therefore not immediate, a few minutes after contact with the allergen, but with a more or less pronounced latency. Eczema can also occur 1-3 days after contact with the allergen. The possible allergens are numerous: A skin test, the so-called epicutaneous test, can help with the diagnosis.
This is carried out by a dermatologist. The therapy usually consists of a consistent avoidance of allergens and the application of a cortisone-containing ointment in the acute phase. – fragrances,
- Vegetable substances (essential oils),
- Metals and many others can be triggers for allergic contact eczema.
Skin rashes of various kinds are a common symptom of allergies. The formation of numerous small allergy spots or pimples can also be a type of rash. Such allergy pimples can occur, for example, as a result of contact allergies to substances such as nickel, various fragrances, preservatives, detergents and latex.
However, pimples are not an allergy-specific rash. Instead of pimple formation, the development of wheals, blisters, pustules or dry skin flakes may also occur. A constantly running nose, also known as a runny nose, typically occurs in hay fever.
However, runny nose is also a very common symptom in allergies such as animal hair or dust mite allergy. Special nasal sprays can help against the constantly running nose. These contain active ingredients such as antihistamines (for example levocabastine), mast cell stabilizers (for example cromoglicic acid) or cortisone derivatives (for example mometasone).
Watery eyes, often accompanied by itching and reddened conjunctiva (conjunctivitis), are also a typical symptom of hay fever, animal hair allergy, etc. The constant rubbing of the eyes due to the tormenting itching makes the symptoms even worse. Eye drops, which are specifically designed to combat eye complaints in allergies, can help here.
As with nasal sprays, the active ingredients used are primarily mast cell stabilizers such as cromoglicic acid and antihistamines such as ketotifen. Itching both in the skin and eye area is a typical allergy symptom. Itching of the eyes occurs mainly in hay fever, dust mite allergy and animal hair allergy.
Itching of the skin is a typical symptom in contact allergies, drug allergies and sometimes also food allergies. Special anti-allergic eye drops help against itching around the eyes. Various ointments or gels can be used to combat itching in the skin area.
Fenistil® gel is a typical member of the group of active ingredients of antihistamines. Preparations containing cortisone can also be used. However, they should only be used for a short period of time as otherwise they can lead to a thinning of the skin, for example.
Fatigue is a very unspecific symptom which can occur in the context of numerous diseases or even completely without any disease value. Allergies are also among the diseases that can trigger fatigue. In patients with an allergy who take anti-allergic medication (antihistamines) and complain of increased fatigue, it can also be a side effect of the medication.
Although the newer antihistamines such as Cetirizine®, in contrast to the older generation of antihistamines (e.g. Fenistil), cause fatigue much less frequently, the side effect fatigue is still listed under “frequent” in the package insert. This means that about one in ten patients taking the drug complain of fatigue as a side effect. Diarrhoea is also a possible symptom of an allergy.
Food allergies in particular can lead to recurring diarrhoea. It often takes a relatively long time to establish the connection between diarrhoea and a possible food allergy. It can therefore be useful to keep a diet diary in case of recurrent diarrhoea in order to uncover possible connections between the intake of certain foods and diarrhoea.
Hoarseness is not a typical symptom of an allergy. It is more likely to lead to symptoms such as increased coughing or sneezing and runny nose. However, a severe allergic reaction, known as anaphylactic shock, can cause rapid swelling of the respiratory tract.
This may be noticeable as an initially rapid increase in hoarseness, which is then accompanied by shortness of breath. Medical help should be sought immediately. A sore throat is not a classic symptom of an allergy.
It is more likely to occur in the context of viral or bacterial infections. However, sore throats can also occur in the context of allergies such as hay fever or a dust mite allergy. In most cases, dry mucous membranes or frequent coughing are the trigger for sore throats, which are caused by irritation of the pharyngeal mucosa.
Sore throats are rarely the only symptom of an allergy. If sore throat occurs more seasonally and is accompanied by other allergy symptoms such as runny nose, watery itchy eyes or coughing, this can be an indication of allergic sore throat. – What causes sore throat?
- Sore throat due to allergy
Coughing is often an expression of an allergic reaction. This is known as an allergic cough. Such an allergic cough occurs particularly in allergies such as Depending on the type of allergy that causes the cough, various therapeutic measures can be used.
Anti-allergic treatment with antihistamines in tablet form is often useful. Typical preparations here are for example Cetirizine ® or Loratadin ®. In the case of allergic coughing that occurs in the context of hay fever, hyposensitization can also be a sensible option, provided that the symptoms reoccur every year.
- Hay fever,
- Dust mite allergies,
- Animal hair allergies and
- Food allergies. – Contact allergies can also cause coughing. Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory tract caused by hypersensitivity of the bronchial system.
It is characterized by attacks of breathlessness, often accompanied by a chronic cough. Bronchial asthma can have various causes. A rough distinction is made between allergic and non-allergic asthma.
However, they are often mixed forms. Allergic asthma often develops in childhood and adolescence. The triggering allergens are the same as for other allergies: animal hair, pollen or dust mites can trigger an asthma attack.
Special asthma sprays are used therapeutically. A distinction is made between acute or necessary medication and medication that has to be taken permanently. The asthma therapy is based on a step-by-step scheme.
In some cases, hyposensitization can also be a useful additional therapy option for allergic asthma. – Asthma
- Emergency spray for asthma
It is not always easy to distinguish an allergy from bronchial asthma, as there are forms of asthma in which asthma attacks are triggered by certain allergens. In so-called allergic asthma, allergens such as animal hair, dust mites or pollen that cause allergic symptoms in allergy sufferers, such as runny nose and watery eyes, lead to asthma attacks.
Asthma and allergy are therefore in some cases much more closely linked than might initially be assumed. If classic asthma attacks with sudden shortness of breath occur repeatedly, asthma should first be diagnosed, among other things by carrying out a pulmonary function test. If the diagnosis of bronchial asthma is confirmed and the presence of an allergic asthma form is suspected, further allergy tests should follow.
These may include skin tests or blood tests, but also provocation tests. The distinction between a pure allergy and an allergic bronchial asthma, on the other hand, is usually relatively easy to make: while a pure allergy tends to lead to symptoms such as runny nose, increased sneezing, watery and itchy eyes and skin symptoms, the classic asthma is characterised by attacks with sudden shortness of breath. The lymph nodes are an important part of the human immune system.
They play an important role in the defence against pathogens. Possible symptoms at the lymph nodes include swelling of the lymph nodes and pain in the lymph node area. Such lymph node symptoms rarely occur in connection with a simple allergy.
Infections with viruses or bacteria are much more common as triggers for symptoms in the lymph nodes. Cancer can also cause symptoms in the lymph nodes. Lymph node swelling often lasts only a few days and is completely harmless.
However, if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as persistent fever or night sweats, or if it persists for a long period of time, a medical examination should be carried out. In the course of an allergic reaction, symptoms in the lip area may occur. For example, allergies to certain foods can lead to tingling in the area of the lips and oral mucosa or numbness of the lips.
Swelling of the lips can also occur as part of a food allergy. Swelling of the lips in the context of an allergic reaction should be taken seriously as there is a risk that the mucous membrane in the area of the respiratory tract will also swell. This can lead to a potentially life-threatening swelling of the airways within a very short time.
If a rapid swelling of the lips occurs in the context of an allergy, medical help should be sought as soon as possible. Anti-allergic measures can be taken and, if necessary, monitoring can also be carried out. Not only food allergies can lead to symptoms on the lips.
Contact allergies, and more rarely hay fever, can also cause such symptoms. Similar to symptoms on the lips, an allergic reaction can also cause symptoms on the tongue. These may be tingling and discomfort or numbness, but may also include rapid swelling of the tongue as part of an allergic reaction.
As with swelling of the lips, medical help should be sought immediately as there is a risk that the airways may also swell. This can happen within minutes and quickly become life-threatening. In patients with known allergies, for example an allergy to nuts, emergency medication (especially the adrenaline pen) should be used immediately in the event of tongue swelling after allergen intake.
As already mentioned in the previous section, allergies, especially food allergies, can cause symptoms in the area of the lips, tongue and oral mucosa as well as the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. But other symptoms in the face can also occur in the context of an allergic reaction. Typically, hay fever, for example, results in watery, itchy eyes and reddening of the conjunctiva (allergic conjunctivitis).
Furthermore, swelling in the area of the eyelids can occur in the context of an allergy. A skin rash in the area of the face can also occur in the context of an allergy. For example, in the context of a nickel allergy when wearing earrings containing nickel. Itching is often an accompanying symptom.
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