The drug known under the name of Allopurinol belongs to the group of uricosstatics and as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (inhibitor) is able to influence the decomposition of the organic purine bases to uric acid. It is generally used for the treatment of chronic gout and is one of the most effective drugs in this field. Due to its enormous treatment success, it is hard to imagine the pharmaceutical market without it. Gout is an extremely painful joint disease (gout attack) caused by increased uric acid concentration and the associated storage of crystalline salts and urate in the joints.
Allopurinol is used in everyday medical practice for the treatment of a wide range of diseases and, due to the high therapeutic successes, it is no longer possible to imagine the pharmaceutical market without it. In patients with an elevated uric acid level in the blood (primary hyperuricemia >8.5 mg/dl), Allopurinol can be used to prevent gout diseases. Since gout is triggered by the increased uric acid concentration and the associated storage of crystalline salts and urate (uric acid) in the joints, gout can be prevented precisely by reducing the uric acid concentration in the blood at an early stage.
Allopurinol is also successfully used in many cases for secondary hyperuricemia, i.e. hyperuricemia triggered by various previous illnesses and/or medical therapies. In addition, patients with existing urate nephropathy can be effectively helped by taking this drug. Uratine nephropathy is a hereditary disease in which uric acid is stored in the kidney tissue where it is converted to uric acid stones (form of kidney stone).
The uric acid stones are mostly deposited in the urinary tract. Allopurinol can also be used to prevent calcium oxalate stones (form of kidney stone). This medication must not be used in patients suffering from renal insufficiency. Allopurinol should also not be taken during pregnancy and the subsequent breastfeeding period.
Mode of operation
Allopurinol has an inhibiting effect on the decomposition of the organic purine base to uric acid. This inhibitory effect is mediated by a reduction of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Through this mechanism of action, the drug Allopurinol ensures an enormous reduction of the uric acid concentration in the blood, which in turn has the advantage that less uric acid has to be metabolized in the tissue.
The starting materials (precursors) of uric acid can be excreted through the kidneys without any problems. Allopurinol is used in most cases in cases of existing hyperuricemia (increased uric acid concentration in the blood) or after a gout attack. In addition, this drug has enormous success in the treatment of gout nephropathies or uric acid stones.
Undesirable side effects
Among the most frequently recorded undesirable side effects of Allopurinol are mainly allergic skin reactions, which are manifested by:. In addition, some patients report the occurrence of nausea and vomiting in connection with taking allopurinol. The formation of some blood cells (leukopenia) can also be negatively influenced by the active substance, and deficiency symptoms can occur during the course of use.
Since many patients have developed kidney stones, it is strongly recommended to increase the normal amount of drinking during the therapy phase, because a large intake of fluid reduces the risk of kidney stone formation enormously. Other undesirable side effects are: Allopurinol should therefore not be taken or only taken under strict medical supervision in the case of corresponding previous illnesses. – Redness
- Severe itching
- Bubble formation
- Damage to the liver and
- Diseases of the kidneys