Chances of survival
An aortic rupture is a fatal event for the patient and accordingly the chances of survival are very low. The mortality rate (death rate) outside the hospital is 90%. In case of an acute rupture of the aorta, only about 10-15% of patients reach the hospital alive.
Despite immediate emergency measures and rapid surgical treatment, only less than half of these patients survive. However, due to improved and faster diagnostics through imaging techniques, the mortality rate has been reduced by a few percent in recent years. As a rule, a complete rupture of all wall layers of the aorta is immediately fatal.
If the outermost connective tissue layer, the adventitia, remains intact, a partial rupture of the aorta occurs. The outer wall layer stabilizes the continuous blood flow of the aorta and patients have a chance of survival if the rupture is diagnosed and treated in time. However, there is still a risk that this layer will also rupture, this is called a 2-stage aortic rupture.
The probability of survival of a spontaneous aortic rupture depends strongly on the size of the rupture, where it occurs, whether the rupture is immediately recognized as such and how quickly treatment is administered. In the case of traumatic aortic ruptures caused by serious accidents, the patients are usually polytraumatic. This means that they have several serious injuries, at least one of which is life-threatening. Therefore, in such cases, the severity of the concomitant injuries has a decisive influence on the chances of survival.
What is a submerged aortic rupture?
A covered aortic rupture results in a rupture of the vessel wall. However, the rupture site is covered by intestinal loops or the peritoneum, so that there is initially no massive blood loss. The blood slowly seeps out of the ruptured aorta into the abdomen, resulting in a bruise on the left side. Often a covered aortic rupture proceeds without symptoms and is not immediately recognized.