Classification of high blood pressure
The increase in blood pressure is divided into different forms: unstable and stress-dependent high blood pressure, which does not occur permanently or only during physical exertion permanent high blood pressure (stable hypertension) critical blood pressure increase to values above 230 /130 mmHg without organ damage (hypertensive crisis) emergency blood pressure increase, which is defined as blood pressure increase above 230 /130 mmHg with organ damage that is life-threatening
- Unstable and stress-dependent high blood pressure that does not occur permanently or only during physical exertion
- Permanent high blood pressure (stable hypertension)
- Critical blood pressure rise to values above 230 /130 mmHg without organ damage (hypertensive crisis)
- Emergency blood pressure elevation, which is defined as blood pressure rise above 230 /130 mmHg with organ damage that is life-threatening. Furthermore, 2 types of high blood pressure are distinguished. Which type of hypertension is present in the patient is determined by the cause of the blood pressure increase.
- High blood pressure whose causes are unknown (primary or essential hypertension). In 90-95% of hypertension no organic cause for the elevated blood pressure can be found. It is assumed that factors such as diet, stress, smoking, physical constitution and hormones influence the development of high blood pressure.
Regular and very controversial discussions take place about whether or not increased saline intake can lead to the development of high blood pressure. There seems to be a correlation, which is why a salt limit (5mg saline / day) is often recommended. A scientifically proven statement, however, cannot be made on this topic.
Overweight and high-fat food increase high blood pressure. Smoking causes a narrowing of the blood vessels due to nicotine, so that the blood pressure rises. Stress activates the sympathetic, i.e. the stress-mediated nervous system, which results in an increase in blood pressure.
Alcohol causes an increase in the heart rate, which can be accompanied by a considerable rise in blood pressure. – Secondary high blood pressure, the causes of which are known and can be named, i.e. high blood pressure is based on a partially curable underlying disease of an internal organ. 10-15% of patients with high blood pressure suffer from hypertension with organic causes.
The cause is a narrowing of the renal artery (renal artery stenosis), a renal tumour or changes in the renal tissue (renoparenchymatous hypertension). Since the kidney is diseased, this is called “renal hypertension”. Other diseases that can be associated with an increase in blood pressure are aortic narrowing (aortic mussenosis), heart valve disease and hormonal causes, such as an overproduction of adrenaline and noradrenaline by an adrenal tumour (pheochromocytoma) or increased production of cortisone (Cushing’s disease), whereby the increase in blood pressure caused by hormones is known as “endocrine hypertension”.