The diseases of the ocular fundus can be very diverse and affect different structures. Diseases of the retina are called retinopathies. A common disease of the retina is dabetic retinopathy, which can occur in the context of diabetes.
It is the most common reason for early blindness, as it can lead to retinal detachment or bleeding. It is therefore important for diabetics to have regular ophthalmological examinations and, if necessary, undergo surgery from the time of diagnosis. In addition, the vessels supplying the retina can become blocked.
This often occurs in patients with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and glaucoma. The therapy of choice is the restoration or improvement of blood circulation. A further clinical picture is that of retinal detachment (Ablatio retinae).
This can lead to visual impairment and even blindness if not treated adequately. The causes are very variable, for example, injuries to the eye such as splinters in the eye or bruises can lead to this. Treatment can be done by laser or, if the damage is more extensive, surgically.
Although retinal detachment is a less dramatic clinical picture, it can also lead to retinal detachment in the course of the disease. With advancing age, age-related macular degeneration can eventually occur, which is the most common cause of blindness in old age. Patients report a gradual deterioration of vision with a decrease in visual acuity.
For this there is the possibility of laser treatment, as well as visual aids or a supportive drug therapy. Another group of diseases of the ocular fundus is that of inflammation. Here it is important to detect infections early and, if necessary, to treat them with medication in order to avoid further consequential damage.
A disease that often affects young men is Chorioretinopathia centralis serosa. This disease causes varying degrees of visual loss due to accumulation of serous fluid between the photoreceptors. This clinical picture is associated with stress situations and often heals spontaneously when it first appears.
Furthermore, there are tumors in the area of the back of the eye, which can occur in all age groups. These can be both benign and malignant and should be removed and/or irradiated if possible. Finally, there are also hereditary and congenital diseases of the retina, but these are usually accompanied by a very early onset of symptoms. Unfortunately, causal treatment is only possible in very few cases.