Renal pelvis, ureter, ureter, urethra, urinary tract, urinary tract, kidney, bladder, cystitis, pelvic inflammation, kidney stones Medical: ureter, vesica urinaria English: bladder, ureter
Diseases of the urinary tract
However, it is possible that pathogens rise from the bladder into the renal pelvis and cause an inflammation (pyelonephritis = inflammation of the renal pelvis). This can lead to strong contractions of the smooth muscles mentioned above (renal colic). Stone formations are possible in the entire area of the draining urinary tract, which can impede the outflow of urine (so-called calyx and renal pelvic stones, or prevesical ureteral stones if they are deeper).
Inflammations of the bladder itself are relatively common in women, due to the much shorter urethra. They are often uncomplicated, but if they occur too frequently they can become chronic and can also ascend via the ureter. They are often caused by germs of the normal intestinal flora, which are transmitted by smear infection.
The mucous membrane of the ureter and bladder can be affected by cancer (so-called urothelial carcinoma). Risk factors are chemical irritants, which are also contained in hair dyes. Of course, benign tumours are also possible, which can often be removed without far-reaching consequences if discovered early.
Continence (ability to hold urine) can be damaged by damage to various sections of the controlling apparatus. In the case of deep spinal cord injuries, the brain is no longer able to control micturition (“urinate”). An “overflow bladder” (neurogenic bladder) forms.
If the bladder’s own plexus is damaged, e.g. in diabetes (diabetic neuropathy), continuous emptying of the bladder is often no longer possible either. In old age there is an occasional or complete loss of sphincter function, especially in women. This is therefore a muscular problem. A distinction can be made here between urge incontinence (“urge incontinence”) and stress incontinence, some of which can be treated with medication or surgery.