State-of-the-art laser surgical techniques called “laser epitelial keratomileusis” (LASEK) and “laser in-situ keratomileusis” (LASIK) are used to grind the inside of the cornea with an excimer laser until normal refractive power and thus the eye’s vision is restored. LASEK is used to correct myopia down to minus six diopters and hyperopia up to plus three diopters. Astigmatism up to plus or minus three diopters can also be treated with LASEK. LASIK is used in the same disease areas, but according to the latest findings, it can also be used for myopia down to minus ten diopters.
Photodynamic therapy can delay the early, wet form of macular degeneration (AMD). In this disease, leaking vessels grow into the yellow spot of the retina and damage the yellow spot by edema (fluid retention). As a result, the region of sharpest vision is restricted and the macula (place of sharpest vision on the retina) gradually disappears.
In photodynamic therapy (PDT), a certain dye is injected into the arm vein by the doctor. This dye accumulates in the proliferating retinal vessels, making them sensitive to the otherwise low-energy laser radiation. The vessels heated in this way become desolate and the edema disappears. In most cases, however, the treatment must be carried out several times at intervals of two to three months.
Vitreous body suction
If there is vitreous haemorrhage that does not resolve itself, the drastic step of a vitrectomy must be performed to restore vision. Similarly, some eye operations on the retina require the partial or complete removal of the vitreous body to make room for the operation. In the long term, the aspirated vitreous body is replaced by a clear liquid similar to the body (Ringer’s solution or silicone oil) or even by a gas. As a complication, however, this operation results in the long-term gradual clouding of the lens of the eye.
Amputations of the eye
If the eye is incurably affected by a tumor, the eyeball must be removed quickly to prevent the tumor from spreading to the eye socket. Similarly, severe accident injuries may necessitate amputation of the eye (exenteratio bulbi) to avoid drastic inflammatory reactions.