Malpositions of the eye | An overview of human eye diseases

Malpositions of the eye

Entropion is a malpositioning of the eyelid, more precisely an inversion of the eyelid so that the lashes drag on the cornea (trichiasis). This disease mainly occurs at an advanced age (entropion senile), but can also occur in infants. The permanent grinding of the eyelashes on the conjunctiva leads to redness of the eye and a foreign body sensation in the patient.

The ectropion is a malposition of the eyelid. In this case, however, not inwards (entropion), but outwards (ectropion). In addition, the lower eyelid is almost always affected by ectropion.

The eyelid is rolled outwards and often the inner side is visible, as you can only see when you pull the lower eyelid down with your thumb. Ectropion – like entropion – is also a disease of old age. Usually an operation is the method of choice. This involves attempting to surgically tighten the eyelid and reattach it to the eyeball (bulbus), e.g. by shortening the lower eyelid and then moving it.

Psychosomatic eye diseases

It is not uncommon for people who are exposed to severe stress to report vision problems. They often report poorer colour vision, problems with

Genetic eye diseases

Common eye diseases that can be inherited are retinopathia pigmentosa, juvenile retinoschisis, congenital cataract or congenital glaucoma. In retinopathy pigmentosa, the photoreceptors in the retina are destroyed. This leads to a gradual deterioration of vision.

Juvenile retinoschisis usually only affects men. However, women can still inherit the disease. This is known as X-linked recessive inheritance.

The vision decreases continuously during the disease. Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the intraocular pressure is increased. Only about 1% of those affected suffer from a hereditary form. Cataracts cause clouding of the lens, which in the long term leads to reduced vision. Only some of those affected have a congenital clouding of the lens, much more often it is caused by a natural aging process, diabetes mellitus or chronic eye inflammation.

Therapy of eye diseases

No studies have shown that certain vitamins protect against eye diseases or improve existing eye diseases. In general, vitamin A protects against free radicals and is mainly transformed in carrots, spinach, broccoli, tomatoes and mangoes. The beta-carotene contained in some of these foods is also converted into vitamin A in the body.

Vitamins C and E are antioxidants and protect the body from cell damage. They are mainly found in citrus fruits, hazelnuts, whole grain products and vegetable oils. Lutein is a component of the retina.

It is therefore important for vision. It is found mainly in spinach and kale. Zeaxanthin is also contained, which also has an antioxidant effect. In general, vitamins are said to strengthen vision and prevent macular degeneration or cataract.