Muscle fibre types
Endurance depends to a certain extent on the distribution of muscle fibres. A distinction is made between slow-twitch muscle fibres. They possess many mitochondria, myoglobin, have a reddish colouring and are particularly important for endurance.
The fast-twitch muscle fibres have a greater anaerobic potential. They are therefore rich in phosphate and glycogen. They are more important for short, intensive rapid performance.
A conversion from fast-twitch fibres to slow-twitch fibres is possible and irreversible. It is not possible the other way round. The distribution of F-T fibres and S-T fibres is anatomically determined. Thus sprinters are born and marathon runners are trained.
As mentioned above, endurance is divided into a broad area. Therefore, endurance performance cannot be trained with only one method. In the foreground of every training is the objective.
The training methods for endurance sports are divided into four areas. These are not only different orientations in the areas of intensity, load etc., but also the accentuated effect of the individual methods on the organism. Before starting an endurance training, however, a running analysis is advisable to determine the running style.
The permanent method
As the name duration already indicates, this method involves endurance performances that are completed without interruptions. In a certain period of time a certain distance is covered. In the duration method, three different methods are used.
The interval method
The interval method is characterized by the rewarding breaks. This is an incomplete regeneration. It comes to a constant change between stress and recovery and thus to an adjustment of the cardiovascular system.
During the load there is an increased cardiac pressure work and in the breaks there is an increased volume work. This leads to an expansion of the heart interior (development of a sports heart). The interval method is divided into four different methods.
The repetition method
In comparison to the interval method, the repeat method results in complete regeneration during the break, the heart rate should not exceed 90-100 beats/minute at the beginning of the subsequent load. It is divided into three methods
The competition method
In this method there is a one-off stress with a competitive character. The aim is to achieve functional states of the organ system that are true to competition. This method is used especially before important competition events in order to be able to prepare for the upcoming stress.
Endurance Performance Diagnostics
The endurance performance can be defined as a performance (e.g. a distance) that can be achieved in a certain time (e.g. 60min). In order to make the endurance performance more comparable, there are certain established tests (e.g. Cooper, PWC) for the endurance ability.
The Cooper test evaluates the endurance performance based on the number of metres travelled in 12 min, taking gender and age into account. In medicine, endurance performance can also be determined by ergometry using certain parameters. Blood tests can be used to determine lactate concentration, pulse and blood pressure can be determined by an ECG and spirometry can be used to analyse lung function. The values, in conjunction with the service provided, and taking into account the time, provide precise information about the endurance performance of a patient.