Side effects on the liver
Although Arcoxia® is broken down via the kidneys, liver damage also occurs, especially with long-term treatment. Such side effects are manifested by increased levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT. AST stands for aspartate aminotransferase, ALT for alanine aminotransferase.
In the liver cells, ALT is located in the cytosol, the cell water, and is therefore only separated from the “outside world” by the cell membrane. AST, on the other hand, also occurs within the cells in the mitochondria. Since mitochondria are also surrounded by a membrane, more serious cell damage is required to release AST.
By forming the quotient of AST and ALT, conclusions can be drawn about the extent of liver damage. If signs of liver damage occur during the application of Arcoxia, a test of the liver enzymes is appropriate. One symptom that indicates liver damage is jaundice (icterus), for example. The skin and the mucous membranes of the eyes (sclerae) turn yellowish. Pain in the right upper abdomen, tiredness and listlessness as well as muscle pain are very unspecific symptoms, but in the presence of elevated liver values they also allow conclusions to be drawn about disturbed liver function.
Side effects on the kidney
The breakdown of Arcoxia® takes place in the kidney. Patients suffering from kidney weakness should therefore be closely monitored while taking Arcoxia. The same applies to patients with heart failure. A heart with insufficient pumping capacity can ultimately also restrict kidney function. The function of the kidney can be checked e.g. by laboratory tests to make sure that there is proper excretion and functionality in general.
Weight gain as side effect
Changes in appetite and eating behaviour are possible when taking Arcoxia®. This can lead to weight gain. The increased occurrence of oedema under treatment with Arcoxia® can also lead to weight gain, this is due to the increased storage of fluid in the tissue.
Contraindications for Arcoxia
Arcoxia® should never be used for certain pre-existing conditions, as these complaints can be adversely affected by long-term use. These contraindications include known hypersensitivity to the actual active ingredient or other components of the drug. In addition, previously observed side effects and hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) contradict the use of Arcoxia®.
Furthermore, administration should be avoided in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, high blood pressure (hypertension) and/or a known heart failure. Arcoxia® should also not be used during pregnancy and the subsequent breastfeeding period. In general, this medicine should not be taken by children and adolescents under 16 years of age.