Stage classification of arthrosis
After the physical examination, an X-ray of the joint is usually taken, which shows one or more of the typical arthrotic changes in advanced arthrosis. These would be a narrowing of the joint space due to the worn cartilage and joint surfaces, debris cysts, osteophytes and sclerotherapy. These are compensation mechanisms with which the body tries to compensate for the degenerative processes.
Osteophytes (bony attachments to the joint) are intended to replace degenerated bone. Sclerosing is a sign of replacement material that is intended to protect the joint instead of the bone and to ensure movement. Sclerosing is a densification of the bone that occurs because the bone is subjected to too much mechanical stress.
If one or more of these signs are found in the X-ray image, the diagnosis of osteoarthritis can be made. The arthrosis can be divided into different stages on the basis of these characteristics. For example, stage 1 is a clinically irrelevant arthrosis, which is only noticeable as such in the X-ray image and is more of a chance finding.
Stage 2 in most cases leads to a visit to the doctor by the patient, as he/she feels pain especially when moving. The joints are not overheated, it is not an inflammatory process. In stage 3, the joint surfaces and cartilage are already so severely degenerated that permanent pain occurs, which can also occur if no movement is performed.
The arthrosis pain is of typical character. So it is described. – a run-up pain in the morning
- A movement pain in the corresponding joints
- And a stress pain with frequently repeated movements
The main risk factors for arthrosis include
- Genetic factors (being a family history of osteoarthritis)
- The body weight Patients with overweight have a much higher risk of developing osteoarthritis, especially of the knees or hip joints, than light people.
The reason is, on the one hand, the higher weight that weighs on the joints and, on the other hand, the incorrect loading that results from this. (e.g. performance-oriented footballers, skiers)
- Occupational groups that repeatedly perform a special movement that puts strain on the joints also belong to the risk group (e.g.
- Malpositions of the joints (e.g. knock-knees or bow legs)
One theory on the development of osteoarthritis states that years of poor diet and unhealthy lifestyle have an influence on osteoarthritis. For example, the consumption of animal proteins, unhealthy fats, cereal products (such as bakery and pasta products) and ready-made meals with synthetic food additives is believed to promote the development of arthrosis by overacidifying the organism. In addition, it is being discussed whether a lack of minerals, misuse of stimulants (e.g. caffeine, alcohol, sugar), severe stress and lack of exercise or incorrect strain can also be triggers for arthrosis.
A consistent change in diet towards a balanced and comprehensively healthy diet is recommended in order to alleviate the symptoms of osteoarthritis. However, even a comprehensive change in diet cannot cure the arthrosis, as destroyed cartilage tissue cannot be restored. Nevertheless, nutrition seems to play an important role.
A healthy diet has a positive effect on the course of the arthrosis and can even prevent further development. Particularly recommended are foods such as fruit, salads, vegetables, potatoes, brown rice, spelt, millet, skimmed milk products and fish. One thesis states that animal fats should be avoided, as well as sweets, sugar, citrus fruits, coffee, alcohol and black tea.
Nevertheless, the study situation for the individual foods in osteoarthritis is still very poor and controversial. A high proportion of leek vegetables, onions and garlic in the diet also showed a cartilage-preserving effect. As with any change in diet, it is also important with regard to osteoarthritis that few ready-made meals are consumed and that a lot of fresh produce is used instead.
In addition, care should be taken to ensure an adequate intake of fluids, as a lot of fluid leads to increased acid excretion via the kidneys. Neutral drinks such as water should be preferred and soft drinks, lemonades, carbonated or caffeinated drinks and alcoholic beverages should be avoided. The intake of dietary supplements (such as chondroitin sulphate, certain vitamins or glucosamine) is controversially discussed, but studies on the influence of dietary supplements on osteoarthritis have not yet been conclusive.
It is important to consult an experienced orthopaedic surgeon before attempting a planned treatment of osteoarthritis through a change in diet or weight loss. The clarification of possible underlying diseases and the exact causes of the arthrosis are in the foreground. and connection between hip arthrosis and nutritionThe treatment measures range from physical therapy to drug therapy to surgery.
You can find more detailed information on the topic of osteoarthritis therapy on our website: Therapy of osteoarthritis The first thing you should always do is to stop the movements that have led to the corresponding incorrect loading of the joint. Movements that promote arthrosis are However, the general avoidance of movement promotes the development of arthrosis in any case. Sport and exercise in the right amount and reasonable load are therefore very important and are recommended to prevent arthrosis or to alleviate the symptoms.
The right form of exercise must be found for each patient individually. Sports that are easy on the joints are counted among the types of sport that are recommended. In total, one should exercise for about 30 minutes per day.
If necessary, physiotherapists can also be called in to provide patient training, showing which movements are easy on the joints and how the patient can relieve the corresponding joints. Patients who sit a lot are particularly advised to exercise regularly. On the one hand, this makes sense because it promotes physical condition, and on the other hand because sensible movement supplies the joint cartilage with sufficient nutrients and thus reduces the rate of degeneration.
Gliding movements with little stress are good for the joints and are recommended, while fast, suddenly stopping movements – as they occur in ball sports – should rather be avoided. Furthermore, cooling measures (cryotherapy) can be taken. Medication is mostly drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or diclofenac).
These have a particularly anti-inflammatory effect. However, it should be noted that continuous use of these drugs leads to reduced production of mucus in the stomach, which increases the risk of gastric bleeding. Therefore, the administration of a stomach protector is recommended.
If the drug and physical therapy is of no use or if the arthrosis is too advanced, the only therapeutic approach is surgery. Among the smaller measures are arthroscopy, the mirroring of the joint. Here, keyhole surgical changes to the cartilage can be corrected.
If the damage cannot be repaired by arthroscopy, artificial joints can help. This usually involves removing parts of the joint or the entire joint and replacing it with an artificial joint. In the meantime, this procedure has become a routine procedure in Germany.
After the operation, physical rehabilitation measures lasting for weeks or months must be followed, so that the patient learns movements again and a corresponding muscle build-up can take place. There are newer approaches that focus primarily on the destroyed joint cartilage. For example, it is possible to remove parts of the undamaged cartilage of the joint and insert them in the place that is already destroyed.
This is done at the open joint. The cartilage must then grow and take over the tasks of the destroyed cartilage. There are also approaches to remove healthy cartilage and grow it outside the body.
Afterwards, this cartilage is also reinserted into the destroyed cartilage site. However, the prerequisite for these two procedures is that only the cartilage of the joint is destroyed and the joint surface is still intact. Other modern approaches to arthrosis treatment concern daily food intake.
It is assumed that overacidification of the body is partly to blame for the formation of arthrosis and supports the progress of joint degeneration. Another possibility for the treatment of arthrosis is the use of homeopathic remedies. – Skiing
- Football etc.
- Running or light jogging
- And crawl swimming
- Crosstrainer /Ergomerter
Arthrosis is the most common joint disease in Germany. The cause of arthrosis is in most cases an incorrect load, which is caused by a lack of exercise or extreme sports. This is followed by degenerative changes in the corresponding joint.
At first, the joint cartilage becomes thinner, small holes are created and become increasingly larger. Finally, the two joint surfaces rub against each other unhindered, which leads to the well-known movement-related pain. In the further course of time, the bone of the joint surfaces also wears out.
As soon as pain occurs, a doctor is usually consulted. The doctor first tries to find out from the patient’s medical history what could be the cause of the pain. Based on the joints frequently affected by osteoarthritis, the suspected diagnosis can be made at an early stage.
In most cases, osteoarthritis occurs in joints that are under particular strain. These include the knee joint, the hip joint, the shoulder joint and the finger joints. The physical examination shows whether it is an inflammation (overheated swollen painful joints).
However, it is only during an operation on the open joint that it is possible to see for certain how severely a joint has degenerated. A diet alone cannot prevent or cure osteoarthritis. However, the importance of regular acidification through diet has recently become more and more important.
Osteoarthritis is much more common in western countries than in developing countries, although it can be assumed that the work performed by the population in developing countries places a much greater strain on the joints than in western countries. It is therefore assumed that the combination of a lack of exercise and sudden overloading (extreme sport) is one of the main factors for arthrosis. Furthermore, incorrect loading (too frequent and incorrect sitting and moving) is considered to be one of the main causes of arthrosis.