The torticollis is a collective term for a number of different malpositions of the neck with many possible causes. The congenital muscular torticollis is a congenital malformation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (superficial neck muscle). The muscle is shortened and thickened due to various factors so that it no longer fulfils its function properly.
This results in malpositions of the neck and head, which in severe cases are accompanied by facial asymmetry and scoliosis of the cervical spine. A therapy should be initiated as soon as possible, which consists of correcting the malposition by physiotherapeutic exercises and rearrangements. If this is done early enough, secondary misalignments such as scoliosis of the cervical spine can be prevented effectively. If the misalignment still persists after one year, surgery is required to restore the muscle to its anatomically normal position.