Visual disorders in general refer to a change in optical perception. There are a variety of diseases that can lead to visual disorders. These include not only diseases of the eye, but also neurological diseases or tumours. Whether a visual disorder persists permanently or improves again depends strongly on the underlying disease.
Vision problems can have a variety of causes. These include not only diseases of the eye itself, but also neurological diseases or tumours. But diseases that manifest themselves all over the body, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, can also lead to visual disorders.
Diseases of the eye that manifest themselves as visual disturbances can be, for example, glaucoma, cataract or a detachment of the retina. However, infectious causes can also be considered to trigger visual disorders. Viruses or bacteria can cause the optic nerve to become inflamed and lead to visual disorders.
An example of this would be the zoster opthalmicus. This is an infection of the eye with the varicella zoster virus, a herpes virus. Non-infectious inflammations such as multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis can also cause visual disorders.
However, metabolic disorders, such as an under- or overactive thyroid gland, a vitamin A deficiency or a vitamin B12 deficiency can also lead to visual disturbances. In addition to these causes, vascular diseases, medication or traumatic events can also lead to visual disorders. Visual disturbances are a common symptom of multiple sclerosis.
In one third of patients with multiple sclerosis, visual disturbances are the first sign of the disease. It is noticeable here that the visual disturbances always occur temporarily. However, patients with known multiple sclerosis can also suffer from visual disorders.
Statistically speaking, three out of four patients suffer from visual disorders during the course of their illness. The visual disturbances often result from inflammation of the optic nerve during the course of the disease. However, inflammation of other cranial nerves can also lead to visual disorders.
The visual disturbances can manifest themselves mainly in reduced vision, altered colour and contrast perception, double images or blurred vision. For therapy, drugs with anti-inflammatory effects, such as cortisone, are available. If the symptoms occur with a known multiple sclerosis or if multiple sclerosis is suspected, a doctor should be consulted as soon as possible.
Visual disturbances that occur in the course of a stroke are manifested by a sudden onset. They manifest themselves mainly by a restriction of the visual field, a disturbance of spatial vision and the occurrence of double vision. Often the visual disturbances do not occur as the sole symptom.
Further symptoms can be a speech disorder, paralysis or numbness, dizziness and insecure gait, severe headaches. It is characteristic that the symptoms of a stroke occur suddenly. If there is a suspicion of a stroke, the emergency services should be called immediately, as the time until the patient arrives at a hospital and the start of therapy can be decisive for the prognosis.
Visual disturbances occur very frequently in the context of migraines. They are called aura and often occur directly before a migraine attack. The visual disturbances in the context of an aura can manifest themselves in different ways.
They are mainly characterised by flashes of light, flickering zigzag lines, blind spots or double images. Other symptoms that also belong to a migraine with aura can be Visual field failures Disturbances of optical perception (scotomas) Loss of vision (paralysis) Sensory disturbances (tingling or numbness) Disturbances in word finding or education Dizziness Tinnitus Hearing loss In general, a distinction is made between migraine forms with and without an aura. This means that not everyone who suffers from migraine also has visual disturbances or other symptoms of an aura before a migraine attack.
However, an aura can also occur without a subsequent headache. Many migraine patients recognise these characteristic symptoms and know that a migraine attack can occur in a short time. – Visual field failures
- Disturbances of the optical perception (scotomas)
- Symptoms of failure (paralysis)
- Sensory disturbances (tingling or numbness)
- Hearing loss
In the case of a high level of stress, it is quite possible that contrasts are perceived in a different way or, for example, that the perception of the “It is suspected that stress can also be a risk factor for a quite rare disease.
It is known as retinopathy centralis serosa or central serous retinal damage. It occurs mainly in men between the ages of 30 and 50 who are exposed to high stress. It manifests itself through a sudden deterioration of vision and distorted perception.
It is suspected that stress can also be a risk factor for a rather rare disease. It is known as retinopathy centralis serosa or central serous retinal damage. It occurs mainly in men between the ages of 30 and 50 who are exposed to high stress.
It manifests itself through a sudden deterioration of vision and distorted perception. An increased concentration of stress hormones can often be detected in the blood. However, the exact cause of this disease is still unknown.
The disease often recedes completely within a few weeks. Visual disturbances can also occur in the context of mental illness or increased mental stress. In the case of mental stress, vision is often difficult, the eyes feel dry and burn.
Also characteristic are, for example, visual field failures. Visual disorders in the context of mental illness can manifest themselves in a variety of ways due to the wide range of different diseases in this field. In the context of diabetes mellitus, there is often a deterioration in vision.
Basically, brain tumours are a rare cause of visual disorders. Whether a brain tumour leads to visual disturbances depends on the location of the tumour. Above all, tumours of the pituitary gland (hypophysis) can lead to visual disturbances, as they can press on the nerves of the visual pathway.
This can become noticeable by flickering in front of the eye, visual field failures or double images. Tumours that lead to increased pressure in the brain can also lead to visual disturbances. Under certain circumstances, symptoms such as dizziness, loss of balance, nausea or vomiting may also occur.
This changes the refractive power and thus also the visual acuity. As a rule, the visual disturbances recede after birth. However, they can also occur in the context of so-called gestational diabetes or preclampsia.
The latter is a very rare but serious disease. It is characterised by high blood pressure and proteinuria, which is an increased excretion of proteins in the urine. Affected persons often express flashes of lightning in front of their eyes or describe parts of their visual field as appearing black. Sudden, frequently changing visual acuity is more likely to indicate gestational diabetes. It is advisable to consult a doctor in any case of visual disorders during pregnancy.