Skull: Structure, Function & Diseases

The skull is the term used to describe the bones of the head. In medical parlance, the skull is also called “cranium”. Thus, if a process exists “intracranially” (tumors, bleeding, etc.) according to the doctor, this means “located in the skull“. What is the cranium? One would think that the skull is a single, large, … Read more

Skull Base: Structure, Function & Diseases

The lower part of the skull is called the skull base. The brain rests on its inner surface. Through openings in the skull base, a total of twelve cranial nerves and blood vessels enter the neck as well as the facial skull. What is the base of the skull? The skull base represents a cranial … Read more

Cranial Calvaria: Structure, Function & Diseases

The cranial calvaria, in Latin calvaria, is the bony roof of the skull and consists of flat, flattened bones (ossa plana). It is also part of the neurocranium, the skull, and at the same time the bone which encloses the brain. The flat bones are connected by so-called sutures: these are seams between two bones, … Read more

Microtubules: Structure, Function & Diseases

Microtubules are protein filaments that have a tubular structure and, together with actin and intermediate filaments, form the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They stabilize the cell and also participate in transport and movement within the cell. What are microtubules? Microtubules are tubular polymers whose protein structures are about 24nm in diameter. Together with other filaments, … Read more

Microvilli: Structure, Function & Diseases

Microvilli are extensions of cells. They are found, for example, in the intestine, uterus, and taste buds. They improve the absorption of substances by increasing the surface area of the cells. What are the microvilli? Microvilli are filamentous projections at the tips of cells. Microvilli are particularly common in epithelial cells. These are the cells … Read more

Myocytes: Structure, Function & Diseases

Myocytes are multinucleated muscle cells. They make up the skeletal muscles. In addition to contraction, energy metabolism also falls within their range of functions. What are myocytes? Myocytes are spindle-shaped muscle cells. Myosin is a protein that plays an important role in their anatomy and function. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek first described muscle cells in the … Read more

Anus: Structure, Function & Diseases

The anus or anus serves as the end segment of the digestive system for controlled defecation and ensures the continence of the rectum (rectum). Most of the complaints in the anal region are generally harmless, but are not clarified in many cases due to false shame. What is the anus? Schematic diagram showing the anatomy … Read more

Fallopian Tubes: Structure, Function & Diseases

The fallopian tubes (or tuba uterina, rarely oviduct) are among the non-visible female secondary sexual characteristics of humans. The fallopian tubes are where fertilization of the egg takes place. The fallopian tubes allow the fertilized egg to be transported further into the uterus. What are the fallopian tubes? The anatomy of the female reproductive and … Read more

Cervical Fascia: Structure, Function & Diseases

The cervical fascia consists of three distinct layers and another fascia that encases the major parallel cervical arteries, the major cervical vein, and the vagus nerve. Composed of collagen and elastin, the cervical fascia is intimately connected to the rest of the body’s fascial system and is largely responsible for shaping the enveloped organs and … Read more

Cervical Plexus: Structure, Function & Diseases

The cervical plexus is a plexus of nerves of the spinal cord, located in the cervical region and composed of mixed nerve fibers. Thus, for example, the plexus is as much involved in the sensory innervation of the ear skin as it is in the motor innervation of the diaphragm. Diseases of the plexus are … Read more

Common Carotid Artery: Structure, Function & Diseases

The common carotid artery is the carotid artery. It serves to supply blood to the head area and is also a measurement center of blood pressure. Calcification of the carotid artery increases the risk of stroke. What is the common carotid artery? The common carotid artery is the artery that supplies blood to the neck … Read more

Cervical Vertebrae: Structure, Function & Diseases

The cervical vertebrae are different from the other vertebrae in the human body: because this area of the spine must meet special requirements, the design of some cervical vertebrae is also special – among the vertebrae of the cervical spine are truly unique. The cervical spine is very mobile, but also sensitive. External influences can … Read more