What is dentin? The dentin or also called dentin, belongs to the hard tooth substances and forms proportionally their main mass. It is the second hardest substance in our body after enamel and is located between the enamel, which is on the surface, and the root cement, which is the surface of the root. The … Read more

Pain on dentin | Dentin

Pain on dentin The majority of pain that occurs in the dentin is caused by caries. The caries “eats” its way from the outside to the inside. It develops on the outermost layer, the enamel, and progresses gradually. Once the caries has reached the dentine, it is not reversible and must be treated to prevent … Read more


Humans have 32 teeth, almost all of which have different names. One distinguishes incisors (Incisivi), canines (Canini), premolars and molars from each other. Some people lack the attachment to the wisdom teeth, also called eights. These people have only 28 teeth in their dentition, but missing wisdom teeth do not mean a functional impairment. Definition … Read more

Appearance | Canine

Appearance The crown of the canine has no occlusal surface but a cusp tip with two incisal edges. If you look at the canine from the vestibular side (from the outside, or from the inside of the lips or cheeks), you can see that the surface of the canine is divided in two. Both facets … Read more

Diseases | Canine

Diseases Retained canines in the upper jaw are relatively common. Due to the late eruption, the canine tooth has hardly any space and then appears completely outside the dental arch, from where it must be repositioned in the arch with the help of brackets and fixed braces. The bracket is glued to the crown of … Read more

Tooth structure

The human dentition contains 28 teeth in adults, with wisdom teeth it is 32. The shape of the teeth varies according to their position. Incisors are somewhat narrower, molars are more massive, depending on their function. The structure, i.e. what the tooth consists of, is the same for every tooth and person. The hardest substance … Read more

The periodontium | Tooth structure

The periodontium The periodontium is also called periodontal apparatus. Its components are the periodontal membrane (desmodont), root cement, gingiva and alveolar bone. The periodontium integrates the tooth and anchors it firmly in the bone. The root cement consists of 61% minerals, 27% organic substances and 12% water. The cement contains collagen fibers. These are on … Read more

Structure of the dentition | Tooth structure

Structure of the dentition A full-grown person possesses 16 teeth in the upper jaw and 16 teeth in the lower jaw, if the wisdom teeth are included. The front teeth are the incisors, the Dentes incisivi decidui. They are the first two on each side. The third tooth is the canine, the Dens caninus decidui. … Read more


Introduction The upper and lower jaws belong to the human jaw. While the lower jaw is a single bone, the upper jaw belongs to the bony facial skull. Bony part The jaw is formed from the lower jaw bone (mandible) and the upper jaw bone (maxilla). The lower jaw bone (mandible) consists of a body … Read more

Musculature of the jaw | Pine

Musculature of the jaw The masticatory muscle (M. masseter) is divided into two parts. One part is more superficial, sloping backwards and downwards (pars superficialis), one part is deeper and vertical (pars profundus), both parts originate at the zygomatic arch (Arcus zygomaticus) and are attached to the outer surface of the mandibular frame (ramus mandibulae). … Read more