warm-up training, warm-up program, warm-up, muscle warming, stretching, stretching, breaking-in, warm-up, etc. English: warming, warm-up
It is impossible to imagine modern training without warming up. Warm-up is often equated with stretching exercises, but these are only part of the warm-up. A targeted warm-up is about raising the body temperature to about 38- 38.5 °C.
Essentially, four functions are assigned to the warming up. A distinction is made between general and specific warming up, which are described in more detail below. – First and foremost, the organic performance or willingness to perform is increased.
- Warming up leads to an increase of the psychological readiness to perform. – The coordinative abilities are improved. – Finally, the warming up serves the injury prophylaxis.
What is meant by warming up?
Warming up means, colloquially, an activation of the muscles that are to be used during the subsequent load. However, since the body is not only made up of muscles, but also tendons and ligaments are an important part of the human musculoskeletal system, these too are prepared for the upcoming load by briefly stretching and moving through them. The warming up can be done by stretching muscles and ligaments or better by additional moderate loads.
A warm-up training can be arranged flexibly and pursues the goal of activating the muscle groups important for the upcoming sport. The warm-up training usually consists of a moderate load and can, but does not have to, contain stretching components. The exercises of the warm-up training can be kept simple, such as simple warm-up or cycling with moderate exertion or more complex exercises with regard to the subsequent activity. For example, fitting balls with subsequent running after them – which is potentially possible in every conceivable sport. The aim of warm-up training, as with warm-up in general, is to reduce injuries and to achieve the best possible muscle activation during the period of heavy exertion after warm-up training.
Mode of operation of warm-up programs
By heating or increasing the body temperature, the internal frictional forces of the organs and muscles are reduced. This allows higher contraction speeds. In addition, warming up increases the speed of nerve cell conduction and sensitizes the sensory receptors to process occurring stimuli better and faster.
Different warming up methods
The general warming up aims at the overall warming of the organism by activating large muscle groups. This form of warming includes loose running. The specific/special warming up integrates the coordinative performance and thus has a sport-specific effect.
Varied running (hop run, side steps, knee lever run, heel, ankle work etc.) and sport-specific movement sequences are included in the warming up. Furthermore, individual abilities or deficits can and should be taken into account in a warm-up program.
Furthermore, a distinction is made between active and passive measures. Active measures include easy running, stretching exercises etc. Passive measures include hot showers, mobilisation of the musculature through sports massages etc.