Laboratory values

As a rule, a blood test is performed once a year to check so-called routine parameters. The aim of this examination is to check the function of organs such as liver, kidney, thyroid gland. In addition, the examination is used before operations, to detect diseases, preventive medical checkups but also to monitor therapy, e.g. by determining the level of medication. Usually the written result of a blood test is difficult for the layperson to understand.

Values in the blood test

There are many different values that can be determined by means of a blood test. Below, the values are divided into main groups and the most important values of this group are then explained.

  • General parameters: including electrolytes, kidney values and lipids
  • Enzymes: especially the liver enzymes but also pancreatic enzymes
  • Coagulation values
  • Small blood count: cells of the blood
  • Large blood count
  • Inflammation factors
  • Blood gas analysis
  • Hormones: including thyroid hormones
  • Medication level
  • Proteins: including antibodies

General parameters

Sodium is a very important salt of our body. It influences the water balance and also plays an important role in nerve conduction. Deviations in the values can lead to cramps.

Decreased values can result from taking diuretics, diarrhoea or increased vomiting. 135-145 mmol/l is the standard value. Potassium and sodium form an important antagonist pair in our body.

While potassium is mainly found inside the cell, sodium can be found outside. A disturbance of the potassium balance can cause life-threatening conditions. Potassium has the important regulatory functions at the heart and nerves.

The consequences of a potassium disorder can be cardiac arrhythmia, muscle cramps or sensory disturbances. The frame values are 3.8-5.2 mmol/l. Calcium is important for blood clotting, as a signal substance and also for bone formation.

Various organs and hormones are involved in the regulation of calcium, such as the small intestine, kidneys, bones and especially the parathyroid gland. A lack of calcium can indicate a functional disorder of the parathyroid glands. An increase in calcium levels can be caused by changes in the parathyroid gland, kidney insufficiency, vitamin D deficiency or bone tumors.

Control values are 2.02-2.60 mmol/l in total calcium. Chloride is often routinely tested. There may be indications of a pH-value shift, i.e. acidification or alkalosis (shift in the basic direction).

The standard value is 95-110 mmol/l. Magnesium is used for diagnostic purposes, since elevated values may indicate renal insufficiency. Low values are usually found in cases of malnutrition, misuse of laxatives, or a disturbance in absorption in the intestine or kidney.

The standard value is 0.7-1.0 mmol/l. Phosphate is mainly relevant for humans as a component of the energy carrier ATP. A deficiency can therefore be accompanied by weakness and paralysis and can be due to malnutrition, alcoholism or a vitamin D deficiency.

As with magnesium, an elevated value can be the cause of kidney failure. The value should be 0.84 to 1.45 mmol/l. Urea, uric acid, creatinine as well as creatinine clearance give exclusion about the function of the kidney and its filtration properties.

Urea should be between 20-45 mg/dl and creatinine between 0.8 and 1.2 mg/dl in women and 0.9-1.4 mg/dl in men. Elevated values may be caused by increased protein consumption but may also be an indication of reduced kidney function. LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high density lipoprotein) are like the names indicate lipoproteins.

They are responsible for the transport of insoluble fats in the blood. From the ratio of LDL and HDL it can be deduced whether there is an increased risk of arteriosclerosis due to increased fat levels in the blood. LDL is seen as a positive factor and HDL as a “bad” lipoprotein. and HDL- high density lipoprotein