Shock: acute circulatory failure

Shock is an acute circulatory failure due to a critical reduction in the volume of blood circulating in the vascular system. More precisely, shock is a mismatch between the vascular capacity needed to keep all organs functioning and the filling of the vessels due to different causes. A heavy bleeding, but also a sudden dilatation … Read more

Anaesthesia stages

Definition The American anaesthetist Arthur Guedel established in 1920 in studies that anaesthesia consists of different stages. These can be distinguished by reflexes, pupil width, movements, pulse, respiratory drive and consciousness of the patient. Guedel observed these stages during ether anaesthesia and they can only be transferred to a pure gas anaesthesia and not to … Read more

Stage 3 | Anaesthesia stages

Stage 3 The third stage is the tolerance stage and the desired state during the surgical procedure. The beginning of this stage is the end of involuntary muscle twitches. The cerebrum, midbrain and also the spinal cord are now completely inhibited. This leads to the loss or strong inhibition of reflexes and muscle tone. The … Read more

Anaesthetics

General Anaesthetics (general anaesthetics) are substances that are generally used before major surgery to ensure that patients are neither conscious nor in pain during the operation, that reflexes are switched off and that muscles are relaxed. Nowadays, several drugs are usually used in combination to achieve the best possible results with as few side effects … Read more

Anaesthetic gas | Anaesthetics

Anaesthetic gas Anaesthetic gases are anaesthetics that are administered via the respiratory tract and are distributed in the blood via the lungs. The substances can be divided into two different groups. On the one hand, the substances that are gaseous at room temperature, nitrous oxide and xenon, and on the other hand the so-called volatile … Read more

What anesthetics are used for short anaesthesia? | Anaesthetics

What anesthetics are used for short anaesthesia? A colonoscopy is usually performed on an awake patient, as the procedure is unpleasant but not very painful. Usually the patients are given a sedative, such as Dormicum (Midazolam). This causes them to sleep during the examination. It is also possible to perform the colonoscopy under a short … Read more

Anaesthetic for colonoscopy | Anaesthetics

Anaesthetic for colonoscopy A colonoscopy is usually performed on an awake patient, as the procedure is unpleasant but not very painful. Usually the patients are given a sedative, such as Dormicum (Midazolam). This causes them to sleep during the examination. It is also possible to perform the colonoscopy under a short anaesthetic. In this case … Read more

Maintenance of anaesthesia | Anaesthetics

Maintenance of anaesthesia Anaesthesia is usually maintained according to a balanced model. This means that anaesthetic gas and intravenously administered medication are used in combination. Under certain circumstances, purely intravenous maintenance may be necessary, in which the medication is administered in exact doses via syringe pumps. A purely inhaled maintenance of anaesthesia is possible by … Read more

Prognosis and prophylaxis of the shock

General note You are on a subpage “Prognosis and prophylaxis of shock“. General information on this topic can be found on our Shock page. Prophylaxis If the cause of a shock is an injury or contact with allergenic substances, prevention is of course difficult. However, the patient himself cannot contribute anything in this case. Gentle … Read more

The anaesthetic induction

Definition Anaesthesia induction is the process of preparing the patient for anaesthesia, an artificially induced state of unconsciousness and painlessness. These preparations follow a fixed scheme. The anaesthetic induction is followed by the anaesthetic continuation, during which this state of unconsciousness is maintained until the operation is finished and the patient can wake up from … Read more

What drugs are used? | The anaesthetic induction

What drugs are used? General anesthesia consists of three groups of drugs. The first group are the anaesthetics which are intended to switch off consciousness. These include, for example, Propofol or some gases. The second group are the painkillers. In most cases these are narcotics, such as Fentanyl. The last group are the muscle relaxants. … Read more