Nodding Disease: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Nodding disease is a neurological disorder of children and adolescents that is endemic in South Sudan, Tanzania, and northern Uganda. The disease is characterized by constant nodding seizures at mealtimes and gradual physical and mental deterioration. Typically, nodding disease leads to death within a few years. What is nodding disease? Nodding disease is a disease … Read more

Cats Claw: Applications, Treatments, Health Benefits

Cat’s claw, Uña de Gato, is a plant found primarily in the Amazon region. The liana-like plant has a long tradition among the indigenous people of Peru as a medicinal and cultural plant. Occurrence and cultivation of cat’s claw In order not to endanger the population, only certain quantities of the plant may be harvested. … Read more

Parasites: Infection, Transmission & Diseases

By definition, a parasite is an organism that infects and mostly harms another living organism for survival. In addition, the infested organism is used for its own reproductive purposes. What are parasites? Numerous infectious diseases are caused by parasites. Among other things, malaria disease can be traced to a previous parasite infestation. Insofar as a … Read more

Cystic Fibrosis: Causes and Treatment

Symptoms In cystic fibrosis (CF, cystic fibrosis), different organ systems are affected, resulting in a heterogeneous clinical picture with symptoms of varying severity: Lower respiratory tract: Chronic cough with viscous mucus formation, obstruction, recurrent infectious diseases, e.g., with , inflammation, remodeling of the lungs (fibrosis), pneumothorax, respiratory insufficiency, shortness of breath, wheezing, oxygen deficiency. Upper … Read more

Cistus

Products Products available in pharmacies and drugstores include the medicinal drug, lozenges, and teas (e.g., Cystus 052, Phytopharma Infectblocker). Stem plant Stem plants include several species and varieties from the genus Cistus and the family Cistaceae, which are native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. In many countries, especially the herb of and of … Read more

Zika Fever

Symptoms Possible symptoms of Zika fever include fever, feeling sick, a rash, muscle and joint pain, headache, and conjunctivitis. The illness is usually benign and lasts a few days to a week (2 to 7 days). An asymptomatic course is common. Guillain-Barré syndrome may rarely occur as a complication. If a pregnant woman is infected, … Read more

Cat Scratch Disease

Symptoms Classic cat scratch disease first manifests as a red papule or pustule at the site where the cat scratched or bit. Soon, local lymphadenitis (inflammation and swelling of the lymph nodes) occurs on the side of the body with the injury, often on the armpit or neck. Children and adolescents are particularly affected. Other … Read more

Feline Epidemic

Symptoms The leading symptom of feline epidemic disease is diarrhea with intestinal inflammation, damage to the intestinal mucosa, and dehydration. Also observed are vomiting, fever, poor general condition, lymphopenia, neutropenia, immunosuppression, eye disease, abortion in pregnant cats, and cerebral movement disorders in newborns. Kittens are most susceptible to the disease, and fatal outcomes are common. … Read more

Azathioprine (Imuran)

Products Azathioprine is commercially available as film-coated tablets and as a lyophilizate (Imurek, generic). It has been approved in many countries since 1965. Structure and properties Azathioprine (C9H7N7O2S, Mr = 277.3 g/mol) is a nitromidazole derivative of mercaptopurine. It exists as a pale yellow powder that is practically insoluble in water. Effects Azathioprine (ATC L04AX01) … Read more

Risankizumab

Products Risankizumab was approved in the United States and in many countries in 2019 as a solution for injection (Skyrizi). Structure and properties Risankizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced by biotechnological methods. Effects Risankizumab (ATC L04AC) has selective immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. The antibody binds to the p19 subunit of human interleukin-23 (IL-23), … Read more

Mercury

Application Mercury (Hydrargyrum, Hg) and its compounds are rarely used in pharmacy today because of their toxicity and adverse effects. An exception is alternative medicine, in which mercury is also called mercurius (e.g., Mercurius solubilis, Mercurius vivus). The English name is Mercury or Quicksilver. In the 20th century, mercury compounds were still widely used and … Read more

Minocycline

Products Minocycline is commercially available in the form of film-coated tablets (Minocin). It has been approved in many countries since 1984. Minac capsules are out of commerce. Topical medicines are additionally available in some countries. Structure and properties Minocylcine (C23H27N3O7, Mr = 457.5 g/mol) is present in drugs as minocycline hydrochloride, a yellow, crystalline, hygroscopic … Read more