Iron: Function & Diseases

Iron is a mineral that performs multiple functions in the human organism. Like other inorganic minerals, iron is essential for organic life. Mode of action of iron A blood test of iron levels is used by doctors to further diagnose various diseases. Since the body itself cannot produce iron, it must be supplied from the … Read more

Nicotinic Acid: Function & Diseases

Nicotinic acid/nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are also known as niacin or vitamin B3. Both substances convert into each other in the body. As vitamin B3, nicotinic acid performs many important functions in energy metabolism. What is nicotinic acid? Both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin or vitamin B3. In the organism, they undergo constant … Read more

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide: Function & Diseases

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide represents an important coenzyme in the context of energy metabolism. It is derived from niacin (vitamin B3, nicotinic acid amide). Deficiency of vitamin B3 results in the symptoms of pellagra. What is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide? Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme that transfers a hydride ion (H-) as part of energy metabolism. … Read more

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate: Function & Diseases

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is a coenzyme that can transfer electrons and hydrogen. It is involved in numerous rections in cell metabolism and is formed starting from vitamin B3 (nictoic acid amide or niacin). What is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate? Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (proper name nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is also abbreviated as NADP … Read more

Hydrolase: Function & Diseases

Hydrolase is a group of enzymes that hydrolytically cleaves substrates. Some hydrolases contribute to the normal functioning of the human body, for example, starch-cleaving amylase. Other hydrolases are involved in the development of disease and, like urease, are produced in bacteria. What is hydrolase? Hydrolases are enzymes that use water to cleave substrates. The substrate … Read more

Hydroxycobalamin: Function & Diseases

Hydroxycobalamin is one of the naturally occurring substances in the vitamin B12 complex. It can be converted into the bioactive adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12) relatively easily by the body’s metabolism through a few steps. Hydroxycobalamin is more suitable than any other compound from the B12 complex for replenishing B12 stores in the body. It performs functions … Read more

Eicosanoids: Function & Diseases

Eicosanoids are hormone-like hydrophobic substances that function as neurotransmitters or immune modulators. They are formed as part of lipid metabolism. Starting materials are omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. What are eicosanoids? The hormone-like eicosanoids play a major role as neurotransmitters or immune modulators. In some cases, they elicit opposite reactions. Basically, they are mediators between … Read more

Chromosomes: Structure and Function

Chromosomes are strands of deoxyribonucleic acid containing so-called histones (basic proteins within a nucleus) and other proteins; the mixture of DNA, histones, and other proteins is also called chromatin. They contain genes and their specific genetic information. Histones are basic proteins that not only serve to package DNA, but are also essential for the expression … Read more


Genetics, also called heredity, is the study of genes, their variations, and heredity within an organism. It is divided into three subgroups: Classical genetics, molecular genetics, and epigenetics. Classical genetics Classical genetics is the oldest field in genetics. This traces its origins to Gregor Mendel, who described the process of inheritance of monogenic hereditary traits … Read more

Mamma Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Heat Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the mamma (synonyms: Mamma MRI; magnetic resonance mammography (MRM; magnetic resonance imaging – mamma; mammary magnetic resonance imaging; mammary MRI; MR mammography; MRI mammography) – or also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) of the mamma – refers to a radiological examination procedure in which a magnetic field is … Read more

Carrier Screening

Carrier screening is a genetic test used to determine if a person is a carrier for a specific autosomal recessive inherited disorder. This screening is most commonly used by couples who are considering pregnancy and want to determine beforehand whether the child would inherit genetic diseases. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends … Read more

Medical Device Diagnostics

Medical device diagnostics is used to diagnose and stage diseases, monitor their course and therapy, and detect diseases at an early stage (secondary prevention). Pathological changes can thus be detected and treated in time.