A skin rash or exanthema is a constant or receding, painful, itchy or low symptom skin irritation of various causes.
Skin rash (lat. Exanthem) can have many causes. These range from harmless causes to infectious diseases to malignant diseases, which can also manifest themselves through the skin.
Skin rashes can occur in particularly sensitive persons even with the slightest change in habits. For example, a skin reaction can occur if the shower gel is changed, a new detergent is not tolerated or the fabric of the new clothes irritates the skin. In principle, the rash should be observed and, if necessary, examined more closely even if the cause is supposedly harmless.
Allergies are very often the cause of skin rashes of all kinds. Triggering factors are for example drugs, animal hair, house dust, plants/pollen, food and chemicals. In the case of very strong reactions to the triggering agent, hives (urticaria) can occur, in which large, fluid-filled wheals form on the skin.
Increased sensitivity to sunlight exposure can also lead to skin rashes (sun allergy). Sunburn itself is also a form of skin rash. A number of skin diseases cause sometimes severe skin rashes.
The most well-known diseases are neurodermatitis, psoriasis and especially acne, which occurs on all parts of the body, but preferably on the face, back and décolleté. Everyone reacts differently to stress, some people get headaches, others sleep badly and for others the stress manifests itself in the form of skin reactions, which can vary greatly. There is no rule for this, some people get more pimples, others tend to have eczema.
For people who already have skin problems, increasing stress can have a decisive amplifying effect. Examples of such diseases are hereditary psoriasis, also known as psoriasis, and neurodermatitis. Even if no problems have existed for years, neurodermatitis can reappear triggered by stress.
Hives is also a significant psychological factor, in some cases up to 80%. However, a rash does not necessarily have to be seen; for many people, skin problems simply manifest themselves in the form of severe itching. This is particularly common in people who generally tend to have very dry skin.
Infectious diseases that can cause a rash are, for example, rubella, measles, scarlet fever, chickenpox, shingles, scabies, syphilis and also HIV. The appearance of the rashes can differ significantly in each case. With chickenpox, itchy blisters are in the foreground, while measles manifests itself mainly through red, growing and merging spots.
There are also autoimmune skin diseases that cause rashes. This often leads to blistering and detachment of skin layers (e.g. pemphigoid). Last but not least, skin tumors, e.g. basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, also manifest themselves through skin changes that may initially appear as a rash. Other cancers that may be associated with rashes are Kaposi’s sarcoma and Paget’s tumor of the breast.