A generally valid definition of doping is not very easy. The definition must be clear and must not leave any room for interpretation. The IOC’s definition of doping therefore includes the term prohibited groups of active substances in order to automatically prohibit newly developed substances based on their group of active substances.
Doping is understood to be the general attempt to improve athletic performance by means of medication. Doping refers to the use of prohibited groups of active substances and the use of prohibited methods. The term doping developed in England in the middle of the 19th century.
Colored South Africans used high-proof alcohol called “Dop” in cult acts, this term was adopted by the English in the following. The history of doping goes back further than most people imagine. Since sporting performance has always been used for social status, prestige, fame, reputation and, not least, financial security, athletes have always tended to take banned substances to enhance personal performance.
At the ancient Olympic Games, the Incas used the chewing of cocaine leaves to improve performance in endurance sports. In ancient Rome, horse doping was used for the first time. Since the professionalization of sport, the cases of doping abuse have not stopped.
In the 20th century doping became especially popular in pure endurance and strength sports. Especially the bicycle racing sport was in the focus of doping investigations in the past years. Although athletes and doctors often lack medical knowledge, doping is done without consideration of the health consequences.
The first doping tests were carried out at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico. When it comes to improving or optimizing performance, athletes in commercialized sport are repeatedly inclined to take prohibited substances to improve their sporting performance. The cost-benefit analysis plays hardly any role.
It is always discussed whether the intake of banned substances in competitive sports finds imitators in recreational sports or whether the negative headlines such as doping-related deaths have a deterrent effect. A 1999 study in fitness studios in the Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein area showed that 24% of male studio visitors and 8% of female studio visitors regularly take medication to support muscle building. The estimated number of unreported cases is probably even higher.
Considering the Germans’ enthusiasm for medication, however, these results are not really surprising. Stimulations describe all active ingredients with an arousing and euphoric effect. The substances are used as a stimulant and therefore enable long-lasting stress and are mainly used in endurance sports when fatigue sets in to maintain performance.
Pain occurs in the maximum range of stress during sports activities. This pain forces the athlete to stop the sporting activity. The intake of intoxicants suppresses this pain and thus enables higher performance.
Intoxicants are used especially in sports with maximum stress. By suppressing the pain, however, the athlete is exposed to particular dangers.
Anabolic agents promote the build-up of body tissue through protein synthesis.
Bodybuilders use this effect to increase muscle mass. However, it comes not only to the increase of muscle mass, but also to numerous side effects. The intake of anabolic steroids is prohibited in any competition-oriented sport.
Due to massive side effects, every athlete is advised against the intake of anabolic steroids.
- Anabolic androgenic steroids
- Beta – Agonists
These active ingredients include, among others, Epo, which is known from cycling. It causes an increased production of red blood cells and thus enables longer endurance efforts.
With new methods, however, it is possible to detect EPO quite reliably. Growth hormones enable the build-up of muscles, but the intake of hormones leads to considerable side effects.
- Growth Hormones
- Epo (erythropoietin)
The diuretics are not directly a doping agent, but cause a manipulation of the urine sample.
- Beta- Blocker
- Local anesthetics
- Blood doping