• Bite wounds
  • Skin blisters
  • Bruises
  • Lacerations
  • Lacerations
  • Abrasions
  • Gunshot wounds
  • Stab wounds
  • Radiation wounds
  • Burns
  • Burns
  • Combinations, for example laceration bruise.

Wounds can be open or closed.


  • Pain, burning, stinging
  • Tissue injury
  • Loss of function of the affected organ


Wound healing proceeds in three characteristic phases: 1. Cleansing phase (exudative phase):

  • Due to bleeding, the wound cleans itself by washing out foreign bodies

2nd granulation phase (proliferation phase):

  • Exudation decreases, new vessels grow in and granulation tissue is formed. In this phase, there is often more pain.

3rd epithelialization phase (differentiation phase):

  • Scar tissue is formed and the wound is closed by the formation of epithelium.


Risk of infection:

  • The risk of infection is mainly related to the formation and resulting contamination of the wound. For example, a high risk of infection comes from bite wounds inflicted by humans or animals.

Chronification, poor healing

To the doctor

  • Large extent, severe bleeding, deep wounds (> 0.5 cm)
  • Do not pull out objects in the wound (eg, nails)!
  • Bite wounds
  • Injuries to the face
  • Severe burns
  • Infected wounds


  • Main article: Wound care

Acute vs. chronic wounds

Acute wound

  • Cause: external injury
  • Usually heal relatively quickly without complications
  • Sharply limited wounds

Chronic wound

  • Cause: injuries and disorders of wound healing as a result of an underlying disease.
  • A chronic wound is spoken of if after four weeks still no signs of healing are visible
  • Fuzzy wound edges
  • Infections are common in chronic wounds
  • Common causes of chronic wounds: Venous disease, diabetes, bed confinement, immune system disorders, anti-inflammatory drugs, rheumatic diseases.

Primary vs. secondary wound infection.

Primary wound infection

  • Infection occurs as soon as the wound is created
  • Examples: traumatic injuries, wound infections after surgery.

Secondary wound infection

  • A secondary wound infection is said to occur when a pre-existing wound becomes infected
  • Examples: chronic ulcers, burn wounds.