Blood groups

Synonyms Blood, blood group, blood types English: blood group Definition The term “blood groups” describes different compositions of glycolipids or proteins on the surface of the red blood cells (erythrocytes). These surface proteins act as antigens. For this reason, non-compatible foreign blood is recognized as foreign during transfusions and leads to the formation of so-called … Read more

Rhesus system | Blood groups

Rhesus system Just like the AB0 system of blood groups, the Rhesus system is one of the most important blood group systems today. These are antibodies against blood components. The name comes from experiments with rhesus monkeys, through which the rhesus factor was discovered in 1937 by Karl Landsteiner. Due to the already existing A … Read more

Duffy system | Blood groups

Duffy system The Duffy factor of the blood groups is an antigen and at the same time a receptor for Plasmodium vivax. This is the causative agent of malaria disease. Persons who do not develop Duffy factor are therefore resistant to malaria. Otherwise the Duffy system has no further important meaning. Summary The determination of … Read more


What are autoantibodies? Our body’s own defence system continuously produces the so-called antibodies, small proteins that support the immune cells in their defence against pathogens and cancer cells. Unfortunately, this system is not infallible and some people produce antibodies that make our own body cells feel foreign and threatening. This leads to the immune cells … Read more

Blood sugar

Synonyms English: blood sugar Blood sugar level Blood sugar value Blood Glucose Plasma glucose Definition The term blood sugar refers to the concentration of the sugar glucose in the blood plasma. This value is given in the units mmol/l or mg/dl. Glucose plays one of the most important roles in the human energy supply, both … Read more

Blood Coagulation

Introduction Blood is responsible in our body for, among other things, the exchange and transport of oxygen, the supply of nutrients to the tissues and organs and the transfer of heat. It circulates constantly through the body. Since it is liquid, there must be a way to stop the blood flow at the site of … Read more

Blood coagulation disorders | Blood Coagulation

Blood coagulation disorders Like every system in our body, the coagulation system can also have various disorders. Since coagulation depends on many factors and substances in the tissue or blood, it is particularly important that no irregularities occur. At the same time, this makes the coagulation cascade very susceptible to errors. Depending on which factor … Read more

Influence of medication on blood coagulation | Blood Coagulation

Influence of medication on blood coagulation Blood clotting can be influenced by various drugs. First of all, there are two large groups of drugs that are used specifically to influence coagulation. On the one hand there are anticoagulant drugs. They are also called anticoagulants. These include vitamin K antagonists (MarcumarĀ®), aspirin and heparins. They delay … Read more

Functions of the blood

Introduction Every person has about 4-6 litres of blood flowing through his veins. This corresponds to about 8% of the body weight. The blood consists of different proportions, which all take on different tasks in the body. For example, the components play an important role in the transport of nutrients and oxygen, but also for … Read more

Tasks of the white blood cells | Functions of the blood

Tasks of the white blood cells The white blood cells (leukocytes) serve the immune defence. They are important in the defence against pathogens and also in the development of allergies and autoimmune diseases. There are many subgroups of leukocytes. The first subgroup is the neutrophilic granulocytes with about 60%. They are able to recognize and … Read more

Tasks of the electrolytes | Functions of the blood

Tasks of the electrolytes Various electrolytes are dissolved in the blood. One of them is sodium. Sodium is much more concentrated in the extracellular space, which includes the blood plasma, than within the body cells. It is this difference in concentration that makes special signal transmissions in the cell possible. Sodium is also important for … Read more

Blood formation | Functions of the blood

Blood formation Hematopoiesis, also known as haematopoiesis, refers to the formation of blood cells from haematopoietic stem cells. This is necessary because the blood cells have a limited life span. Thus erythrocytes live for up to 120 days and thrombocytes for up to 10 days, after which renewal is necessary. The 1st place of blood … Read more