The xiphoid process

Definition – What is the xiphoid process? The sword process – also called “Processus Xyphoideus” – is the lowest part of the sternum. The sternum can be divided into three parts. It resembles a sword in its entirety. At the top, between the clavicles, lies the handle (Manubrium Sterni). The middle part, where the second … Read more

The male breast

Introduction The male breast (Mamma masculina) is in principle designed in the same way as the female breast. In contrast to the female form, the male breast is not considered a secondary sexual characteristic. Structure of the male breast Due to a lack of hormonal processes, however, the male breast does not develop further, but … Read more

Why do men have nipples? | The male breast

Why do men have nipples? The male mammary glands are located underneath the nipples and are inferior to the female mammary glands in size and number, which can be explained by the hormonal equipment of the man. It is only through female hormones such as estrogen that the breast gland tissue is stimulated to grow. … Read more

Chest pain | The male breast

Chest pain Breast pain in men is often caused by swelling of the breast. Technically, this is also referred to as gynecomastia. However, this does not always have to be accompanied by pain or feelings of tension. A distinction is made between a natural and a pathological form of gynecomastia. The so-called “man’s breast” is … Read more


Synonyms in a broader sense mammary gland, mamma, mastos, mastodynia, mastopathy, mamma – carcinoma, breast cancer English: female breast, mamma Anatomy of the nipple The nipple (mamilla, nipple) is a circular structure in the middle of the breast region, which is more pigmented, i.e. darker than the surrounding skin. It consists of the actual nipple, … Read more

Appearance | Nipple

Appearance Depending on the person, nipples can look very different, so there is a wide range within which everything is still considered “normal”, since every person is different. However, there are also some anatomical peculiarities that occur frequently and deserve special consideration. These include, for example, the so-called inverted nipples (also: inverted nipples). These are … Read more

Nipple pain | Nipple

Nipple pain There are numerous causes for painful nipples. They can often be triggered by mechanical irritation of the nipple. The reason for such irritation can be items of clothing, especially the bra. If this is the case, the bra should be changed and you should wait to see if the pain subsides. Both the … Read more

Nipple Inflammation | Nipple

Nipple Inflammation An inflammation of the nipple rarely occurs in isolation. In most cases there is an inflammation of the breast itself, more precisely of the glands inside the breast. Such an inflammation of the glandular bodies is called mastitis. There are two types of mastitis. Mastitis puerperalis only occurs in women who have given … Read more

Ribbed Arch

Introduction In the narrow anatomical sense, the costal arch describes a cartilaginous part of the sternum, which represents a connection of the 8th -10th rib to the sternum. These ribs 8-10 have no direct contact with the sternum and are only indirectly attached to the sternum via cartilage. In a broader sense, however, the lower … Read more

Function | Ribbed Arch

Function The ribs and the costal arch in general serve to protect and function the lungs and the heart, represent an anatomical boundary and are the starting point for important muscles. As a component of the lower thoracic literature, the actual anatomical costal arch serves as a boundary between the thoracic and abdominal areas. This … Read more