Atosil® is the trade name of a drug containing the active ingredient promethazine. The chemical properties of promethazine, which belongs to the phenothiazines, place the drug in the group of antihistamines. However, it is also used as a weak neuroleptic.
Atosil® is an antihistamine. Histamine is a messenger substance in our body, which makes the largest part of all allergic reactions in our body by binding to receptors, which then send further signals for an allergy. An antihistamine is now an active substance that prevents the effect of histamine by blocking this receptor and thus also prevents the allergic reaction.
In most cases these are H1-receptors, which is why they are also called H1-antihistamines. The reason why it is also used as a neuroleptic is that the effect of Atosil® is not specific. It belongs to the 1st generation antihistamines, i.e. to the initially developed agents against allergies.
It is distinguished by the fact that it not only binds locally where it is supposed to stop the allergy, but also blocks central H1 receptors. This means that Atosil® in small amounts also has access to the brain, where it reduces activity and thus has a sleep-promoting and sedative effect. Normally, histamine leads to a waking state, which is then understandably suspended with Atosil®.
Because of this manifold (side) effects it is available only on prescription. Atosil® is used for allergies, such as hay fever, skin reactions or itching, whereby the 2nd and 3rd generation of antihistamines are used as the anti-allergic therapy of choice. They can also be used in cases of allergic shock.
In addition to the treatment of allergies, it is also used as a sedative for restlessness and severe anxiety and for pronounced sleep disorders due to its influence on the central nervous system. Due to numerous side effects, as listed below, Atosil® is replaced by newer antiallergics. Atosil® is also capable of being used to treat vomiting, which relieves these symptoms.
Another field of application is anaesthetic preparation. Atosil® should not be taken with substances which also have a calming and sedative effect, as they can increase their action. These include alcohol, opiates, antidepressants and sleeping pills.
Under no circumstances should Atosil® be used with antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), as here too the antihypertensive effect would increase and can lead to low blood pressure values and collapse. Since Atosil® also binds to other receptors in the body, i.e. it has an influence on many processes, there are some clinical pictures for which Atosil® is absolutely contraindicated because it can make the disease worse and worse. This applies to narrow-angle glaucoma as well as to prostate hyperplasia with residual urine and intestinal obstruction. In cases of dementia, liver and kidney dysfunction, and epilepsies, Atosil® should be administered with caution and with the exact assessment of the physician. Atosil® should not be used in the case of certain cardiac arrhythmias, as these can also exacerbate cardiac disorders.