Anabolic steroids or also anabolic steroids are the most frequently detected substances in doping controls. Since 1993, the anabolic substances have been divided into two subgroups. – anabolic, androgenic steroids (see below)
- Beta-2 agonists
The anabolic steroids or also called anabolic steroids are artificially produced active ingredients that are very similar in their structure and effects to the male sex hormone testosterone.
Approximately 5-10 mg testosterone is produced daily in the testicular tissue. Since the use of anabolic steroids makes it easier to tolerate training stress, there have also been positive doping cases in endurance sports in recent years. Due to the numerous side effects, anabolic steroids were put on the doping list at the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal.
The effect of testosterone can be divided into two areas. The shift from the anabolic to the androgenic effect of testosterone is possible by variation at ring A and carbon atom 17. However, the androgenic effects cannot be prevented.
Testosterone and its related anabolic steroids consist of sterane and a hydrocarbon backbone. In the blood plasma, testosterone is present in free form to 2% and bound to proteins to 98%. The anabolic steroids can be partially absorbed intracellularly as well as through the digestive tract.
An alkyl substitution as with nandrolone prolongs the duration of action by slowing down the metabolism. Well-known anabolic steroids include metenolone and stanozolol. – Androgenic effect: This androgenic effect is characterized by the growth of the male sexual organs.
Sperm mature and the secondary male sexual organs develop (beard growth, deep voice, etc.) – Anabolic effect: Anabolic means constructive and describes the protein-building effect. The testosterone promotes the protein biosynthesis in the human organs, especially in the muscles.
Besides the growth of the skeletal muscles, the intake of testosterone leads to the closure of the growth gap. In childhood, testosterone must therefore under no circumstances be added externally. Furthermore, the intake of testosterone leads to an increase in the feeling of activity and motivation.
Some sports physicians are of the opinion that current sporting performance in the area of strength and speed can only be achieved with the use of anabolic steroids. The effect of anabolic steroids in connection with strength training is explained in more detail below. From a medical point of view, the use of anabolic steroids is strongly discouraged due to health risks.
Even steroids with fewer side effects do not change the long-term health effects of this hormone exposure. The usual steroids are based on the male sex hormone testosterone. They are usually swallowed in the form of tablets, injected or applied to the skin as a gel.
The active ingredient then enters the bloodstream and from there into the muscle tissue. In the muscle tissue, the active substance attaches itself to certain points of the cell and penetrates into it. Once it reaches the cell nucleus, the steroid causes increased production of new body tissue, especially muscle cells.
At the same time, androgenic substances cause the body’s own testosterone production to be reduced, resulting in undesirable side effects. The effect of anabolic steroids can be divided into two parts, the anabolic effect and the androgenic effect. – The intake of anabolic steroids causes an increase in muscle cross-sectional area with an increase in strength potential whenever there is a lack of endogenous testosterone.
Women and young people in particular have a lower testosterone level. In women, the intake of anabolic steroids causes irreversible virilization symptoms (masculinization). In adolescents, the growth gap closes.
Women and adolescents are therefore strongly advised not to take anabolic steroids. – Studies on healthy, untrained male volunteers showed no significant increase in performance when taking anabolic steroids compared to experimental groups without taking them. – Studies with self-medication at 5-12 times the recommended dosage showed a significant increase in strength compared to a control group in the high performance range.
There was an increased muscle cross-sectional enlargement and higher strength potential. However, the external intake of anabolic steroids significantly reduces testosterone production. After discontinuation of the external intake, however, drastic performance losses must be expected.
The anabolic effect refers to the protein metabolism in the body. As desired by the users, the anabolic steroids increase the protein build-up in the muscles in order to gain more muscle mass and more strength. However, this effect only occurs if regular strength training is carried out in addition to steroid intake.
The pure intake without training does not achieve any significant success. In addition, red blood cells are formed, which are responsible for the transport of oxygen. In addition to the protein build-up, the anabolic effect ensures that the user has an increased ability to regenerate and can train more during shorter recovery phases.
Furthermore, the body fat decreases in percentage and the body fat distribution is optimized. The bones have an increased ability to absorb calcium. The androgenic effect refers to the undesirable side effects that occur when taking anabolic steroids. In order to avoid or minimize these side effects, we try to keep the androgenic component as low as possible in synthetic production.
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