Cocaine is rarely used as a doping agent. Cocaine is found in the leaves of the South American coca bushes and is often used by locals in Bolivia and Peru to postpone the onset of fatigue. Cocaine is an alkaloid and is extracted from the active components of the coca bush.
In 1750, the first coca shrubs came to Europe from South American countries. The intake of about 0.05 grams leads to a euphoric reaction with an increased urge to be active. However, the reactions did not differ from the natural euphoria of humans.
Until the beginning of the 19th century, Coca Cola contained 250 milligrams of cocaine. Cocaine inhibits the reflux of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft at the sympathetic nerve endings. This increases the concentration of noradrenaline at the receptor.
Increased excitation, increased heart rate and vasoconstriction are the consequences. If the dosage is too high, there is a risk of muscle cramps and even respiratory paralysis. There is also a considerable potential for addiction.
Cocaine can be consumed in many different ways. It can be taken orally, intranasally and intravenously or smoked. Smoked cocaine has a stronger effect and already after a few seconds.
In some South American countries the coca leaves are traditionally boiled in tea as a health-promoting effect. The import of coca tea in Germany is nevertheless illegal. The use of cocaine leads to a narrowing of the blood vessels with the consequence of high blood pressure, an increase in heart rate and irregularities in the breathing rhythm.
Heart rhythm disturbances up to heart attacks can be possible consequences. The use of cocaine can lead to sleep disorders, disturbed hunger and thirst and anxiety. The consequences of sleep disorders are hallucinations and disorientation.
After the euphoric effect it comes to a depressive mood which leads to a further urge to use. A life-threatening dosage for rhinitis is about 1.2 to 1.4 grams. Intravenously, a life-threatening dose is already 0.7 – 0.8 grams.