Definition The papilla is an area on the retina of the eye. This is where all the nerve fibers of the retina converge and leave the eyeball as a bundled nerve cord in order to be able to transmit the sensory impressions of the eye to the brain. Anatomy The papilla is a circular area … Read more

Papilloedema | Papilla

Papilloedema Papilledema, also called congestion pupil, is a pathological bulge of the optic nerve head, which is normally slightly convex. Unlike optic disc excavation, pressure from behind on the optic nerve is increased, causing it to bulge forward. The causes of papilledema can be very diverse. In addition to the optic nerve, numerous arteries and … Read more

The visual acuity

Definition Visual acuity (visual acuity, visual acuity, minimum separable) indicates the measurable degree of ability to recognize patterns and contours in the outside world as such. Minimum visibile Minimum visibile is the limit of visibility. This is reached when objects that are viewed and imaged on the retina can no longer be distinguished as contour … Read more

Sclera of the eye

Definition – What is the dermis? The eye consists of the outer eye skin, which can be divided into two sections – the opaque sclera and the translucent cornea. The main part of the eye skin is formed by the strong sclera. The white sclera consists of firm connective tissue and envelops almost the entire … Read more

Function of the dermis | Sclera of the eye

Function of the dermis The main function of the sclera is to protect the eye, or rather, to protect the sensitive interior of the eye. Especially the vulnerable choroid, which is located underneath the sclera, is protected by it. It needs this protection because it is responsible for the blood supply of the eye and … Read more

Cornea of the eye

Synonym Keratoplasty Introduction The cornea covers the front part of the eye. It is a thin transparent collagenous layer of approximately 550 micrometers to 700 micrometers that is not visible to the naked eye. It protects the eyeball and refracts the incident light rays. Structure of the cornea The cornea consists of several layers (structure). … Read more

Corneal Transplantation | Cornea of the eye

Corneal Transplantation If corneal diseases severely limit the vision of the eye, or if there are diseases of the cornea that cannot be controlled in any other way, a corneal transplant can be performed. In this procedure, the patient’s cornea is removed and replaced by donor cornea. It is possible to replace the entire cornea … Read more


Synonyms in a broader sense visual hole Definition The pupil forms the black center of the colored iris. It is through this iris that light enters the eye and travels to the retina, where it leads to the signal transduction that is responsible for the creation of a visual impression. The pupil is variable in … Read more

How big are the human pupils? | Pupil

How big are the human pupils? The size of the human pupil is relatively variable. One of the most important influencing factors is the brightness of the environment. During the day, the pupil has a diameter of about 1.5 millimeters. At night or in darkness the pupil widens to a diameter of eight to even … Read more