The palate

Definition The palate is the structure between oral cavity and nasal cavity. It forms both the roof for the oral cavity and the floor for the nasal cavity. Diseases of the palate Pain in the palate can have many different causes and take on different forms. A precise diagnosis of the occurrence of palatal pain … Read more


The lips consist of an upper lip (labium superius) and a lower lip (labium inferius). The lips merge at the right and left corner of the mouth (angulus oris). They contain muscle tissue and the oral fissure (Rima oris) forms the entrance to the oral cavity. On the inside, they have an upper and lower … Read more

Blood supply | Lip

Blood supply The lips are very well supplied with blood. The arterial blood flow comes from the facial artery, an outlet from the external carotid artery. The carotid artery branches out again into an upper superior labial artery and a lower inferior labial artery to supply the lips. The venous outflow into the jugular vein … Read more

Labial frenulum | Lip

Labial frenulum The labial frenulum is called frenulum labii in the technical language and is located on the inside of the upper lip. It is located in the middle of the upper incisors. It is a connective tissue structure, but it does not perform any important function. The labial frenulum is merely a remnant. A … Read more

Parotid gland

Introduction A person produces about one and a half liters of saliva every day. The parotid gland (Parotis or Glandula parotidea) is mainly involved in the production of this enormous amount of fluid. It is the largest salivary gland in the mouth and jaw area, which is found in humans as well as in all … Read more

HIV transmission through saliva? | Saliva

HIV transmission through saliva? Since HIV infection is transmitted via body fluids, the question naturally arises whether infection via saliva (e.g. when kissing) is possible. The answer to this question is: ” Usually: No!”. This is because the amount of virus (concentration) in the saliva is extremely small, and so a huge amount of saliva … Read more


Synonyms spit, saliva Introduction Saliva is an exocrine secretion that is produced in the salivary glands located in the oral cavity. In humans, there are three large salivary glands and a large number of small salivary glands. Large salivary glands include the parotid gland (Glandula parotis), the mandibular gland (Glandula submandibularis) and the sublingual gland … Read more

More detailed composition | Saliva

More detailed composition Saliva is composed of many different components, whereby the proportions of the respective components differ from unstimulated to stimulated saliva, and the place of production, i.e. which salivary gland is responsible for saliva production, also contributes significantly to the composition. The saliva consists of water for the most part (95%). However, in … Read more