Aqueous or oily medicines for use on the eye are called eye drops (oculoguttae). The drops are dropped into the conjunctival sac and thus the active ingredient contained in the drug can act locally. Typically, eye drops are used for the treatment of the following complaints:
- Irritation or
- Dry eyes
Dry eyes can be caused by. Eye drops mixed with preservatives prevent the spread of bacteria and can be used for a while after opening, but allergic reactions and hypersensitivity to these preservatives can occur. However, the majority of preservative-free eye drops are only available in single-use doses to prevent bacterial growth.
(e.g. Euphrasia officinalis, Tetryzolin) The second most common type of over-the-counter eye drops are those which can be used in case of swelling or redness. This redness can occur as a result of irritation from Decongestant eye drops relieve the redness by contracting the blood vessels of the eye. Therefore, these drops can only help to a certain extent and often the eye gets used to the active ingredients, so that the eye does not respond so well after some applications.
Excessive use of the eye drops can also lead to dilation of the pupils. – Lack of sleep
- Long working on the computer
- Watching television or
- Staying in rooms with low humidity
- Lack of moistening of the ocular surface and thus increased friction of the eyelid
- A generally dry climate
(e.g. Levocabastine, Antazoline, Tetryzoline) In most cases an allergy is the cause of eye problems when the dryness and redness are accompanied by itching and/or swelling. As difficult as it is not to rub the itchy eyes, it must be avoided, as otherwise the eye tissue will be additionally irritated.
Antiallergic eye drops are often called antihistamines, which means that they reduce the itch-mediating histamine (the body’s own messenger substance in allergic reactions) in the eye tissue. (e.g. dexamethasone, fluorometholone) There are two different types of eye drops for inflammation: corticosteroids are used to treat inflammation of the iris or conjunctiva and/or cornea. These eye drops are prescription only as they have strong side effects.
Viral or bacterial conjunctivitis can be treated with special eye drops. Symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis include The symptoms of viral conjunctivitis are bacterial conjunctivitis is often treated with antibiotic drops (e.g. ofloxacin, chloramphenicol). Milder forms of viral conjunctivitis can also be treated by regularly moistening the eye with eye drops (e.g. Aciclovir ).
However, strict care must be taken to avoid contact between the vial and the eye, otherwise the virus will spread. Antibiotic preparations are also used for stubborn barley grains on the eye or eyelid margin. In order to have a longer effect, they are usually available in ointment form.
6 Prescription glaucoma eye drops
(e.g. ocular beta blockers and prostaglandin analogues)
Eye drops that have been specially developed for the treatment of glaucoma have the property of reducing the production of tear fluid in the eye or to induce drainage of the eye and thus pressure equalization. Due to the serious and irreversible damage that can be caused by untreated or incorrectly treated glaucoma, medical monitoring of glaucoma is absolutely necessary. Common side effects that can occur through the use of glaucoma eye drops are visual disturbances headaches headaches heart rhythm disturbances breathing difficulties sexual dysfunctions (e.g. ocular beta-blockers and prostaglandin analogues) Eye drops that have been specially developed for the treatment of glaucoma have the property of reducing the production of tear fluid in the eye or of inducing drainage of the eye and thus pressure equalisation.
Due to the serious and irreversible damage that can be caused by untreated or incorrectly treated glaucoma, medical monitoring of glaucoma is absolutely necessary. Common side effects that can occur through the use of glaucoma eye drops are
- Corticosteroids (steroid hormones)
- Non-steroids (e.g. diclofenac, indomethacin, nepafenac). – red, inflamed eyes
- Sticky, yellowish secretion that crusts during sleep
- Red, wet-looking eyes
- Clear to white secretion
- Visual disorders
- Cardiac arrhythmia
- Breathing difficulties
- Sexual dysfunctions
Local anaesthetic eye drops for local anaesthesia: Mydriatics for pupil dilation: Disinfectants for local disinfection: Diagnostics for use on the eye:
- Cocaine (extemporaneous preparation)
- Oxybuprocaine eye drops
- Parasympatholytics: atropine, scopolamine
- Sympathomimetics: cocaine, ephedrine, phenylephrine