As an orientation how a healthy, wholefood diet is designed, it is a valuable help as a scheme. The DGE (German Society for Nutrition) developed the Nutrition Circle for this purpose, but the food pyramid, which was worked out by American scientists, proved to be more comprehensible. It shows that all foods are allowed if the quantities consumed are correct. The pyramid makes it clear which foods should be used in abundance, moderately or only sparingly. It also indicates that the daily diet should be as varied as possible.
Food groups in the food pyramid and valuable nutrients contained therein
Form the base of the pyramid:
- Cereals and cereal productsCereals and cereal products form the basis of the diet. They should be part of every meal. At least 1 portion of bread, breakfast cereals (such as flakes or muesli), noodles or rice at each meal.
Whole grain products should be given priority in the selection. A wholemeal content of 50% should be aimed for. Valuable nutrients: complex carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamins (especially B vitamins), minerals (especially magnesium and potassium)
- Vegetables, Potatoes and SaladDaily up to three large portions (up to 1kg) of vegetables and salads, if possible according to seasonal offer, always fresh and partly also as raw vegetables.
If possible, cook potatoes in their skins and prepare them in a low-fat way. Valuable nutrients: complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres, vitamins (especially vitamin C and carotenoids), minerals (especially potassium)
- FruitDaily at least 3 pieces of fruit. Prefer fresh fruit and consider seasonal availability and freshness.
Valuable nutrients: carbohydrates, vitamin C, mineral potassium
- Milk and dairy productsPrefer at least 1⁄4 l milk and 3 slices of cheese (exchangeable for quark, yoghurt, cream cheese), low-fat products and preparations every day. valuable nutrients: protein, vitamin A, D and B vitamins), minerals (especially iron, iodine and zinc)
- Meat, poultry, sausage, fish, eggsTwo to three times per week meat or sausage (each weighing approx. 125g), 1-2 times per week fish and up to three eggs.
Again, make the menu varied and prefer low-fat varieties. Value-giving nutrients: Protein, vitamins A, D and B, minerals (especially iron, iodine and zinc)
- Fats and OilsEnjoy in moderation. 1-2 tablespoons of butter or margarine and 1 -2 tablespoons of high-quality vegetable oil per day.
Give preference to high quality vegetable oils. Valuable nutrients: Essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins (especially vitamin E and D) form the top of the pyramid:
- Enjoy luxury food sweets, cakes, chips and alcohol in small quantities. No more than 1 bar of chocolate, a small piece of cake, 1 handful of potato chips, 1/8 l red wine and the like every day.
A sufficient intake of liquids is also recommended.
- GetränkeMan normally recommends to drink at least 1 1⁄2 to two liters of liquid daily. With heat, physical strain, sport, fever, the fluid requirement can increase considerably. Best suited are mineral water, unsweetened herbal or fruit tea, fruit juice spritzer.
Coffee and black tea should not play a role in the fluid balance. These are more likely to be stimulants than drinks to quench thirst. Milk is also not considered a drink, it appears in milk and dairy products as a protein carrier and food and not in the fluid balance.