Synonyms in a broader sense

Jogging, running, endurance sports, marathonsThe number of recreational athletes who are enthusiastic about running has been increasing for years. It is estimated that about 10 million people in Germany regularly go running. More and more people seem to have the need to move around besides their work.

This is certainly due to the fact that many employees are sedentary all day, which creates a feeling of congestion. However, the fact of a broader perception of one’s own state of fitness and thus of one’s own health is also important. Here the advertisement plays an important role, which discovered in particular the 50 plus-years old as financially strong clientele for itself.

As a new trend for this target group, WalkingNordic Walking has recently become increasingly popular in the leisure sports sector. Walking is generally considered to have a health-protective effect, especially on the cardiovascular system. But also regular headaches and depressions can sometimes be positively influenced by running. Nevertheless, running also means a strain on the muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones (supporting and locomotor system) with the possibility of injury to these structures. In addition to the sudden injuries (accidents), which are rather rare when running, there are more frequent symptoms of overloading and incorrect loading of the musculoskeletal system.

Functional Anatomy

Walking represents a rhythmic – dynamic sequence of movements. The whole body is involved in the movement, with the greatest stress being on the lower extremities (legs). The rhythm of the movement sequence can be divided into different movement phases.

The strain on the musculoskeletal system differs in the individual movement phases. When the leg comes up (front support phase), the joints and muscles of the leg must absorb the body weight and cushion the impact. In particular, the muscles of the front thigh (Musculus quadrizeps), the calf muscles (Musculus trzeps surae) and the knee joint are stressed here.

When the body is pushed off the ground (posterior support phase), the front thigh muscles and the foot extensor muscles are stressed in an early phase, and in a late phase the calf and posterior thigh muscles (ischiocrural muscles) are also increasingly stressed. After the foot is detached from the ground, the leg is guided backwards (rear swing phase). This results in an extension of the hip joint as well as flexion of the knee joint and upper ankle joint.

The muscles required for this movement are the anterior thigh muscles (especially the rectus femoris muscle) and the anterior lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior muscle). This is followed by leading the leg forward (anterior swing phase) with extension of the knee joint and preparation for the emergence of the foot. The tibialis anterior muscle of the anterior lower leg is particularly active in this movement phase.

With the emergence of the foot, a new cycle of movement begins with the corresponding loading of the muscles. The causes of complaints or injuries during walking are manifold. Various factors must be taken into account:

  • Accidents
  • Age
  • Weight
  • Training condition (endurance training)
  • Body anatomy
  • Running technique
  • Intensity of running
  • Running surface
  • Equipment