Neuroblastoma (ICD-10-GM C74.-: Malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland) is a malignant neoplasm (malignant neoplasm) of the autonomic nervous system. Neuroblastoma is the second most common malignant neoplasm in children behind acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sex ratio: girls and boys are affected with approximately equal frequency. Frequency peak: the disease occurs in childhood. In 90% … Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma: Medical History

The medical history (history of the patient) represents an important component in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Family history Is there a frequent history of cancer in your family? Social history Current medical history/systemic history (somatic and psychological complaints). What symptoms have you noticed? How long have these changes existed? Does your child feel tired, weak? … Neuroblastoma: Medical History

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Drug Therapy

Therapeutic targets Symptom relief Preservation and improvement of the quality of life Prolongation of survival time Therapy recommendations Therapy of low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. In the presence of low-grade cytopenia (decrease in cell count) and depending on age and comorbidities (concomitant diseases), it is sufficient to initially observe or wait (“watch and wait”) in these patients. … Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Drug Therapy

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Prevention

To prevent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), attention must be paid to reducing individual risk factors. Environmental exposures – Intoxications (poisonings). Long-term exposure (10-20 years) to toxic (poisonous) substances such as benzenes and also certain solvents – particularly affected are gas station attendants, painters and varnishers, and also airport attendants (kerosene).

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Symptoms, Complaints, Signs

The following symptoms and complaints may indicate myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): Symptoms due to cytopenia (decrease in the number of cells in the blood) (80%). Anemia symptoms (70-80%). Exertional dyspnea (shortness of breath during exertion). Exercise tachycardia (rapid heartbeat under stress). Paleness of the skin and mucous membranes Headache Tiredness and fatigue Dizziness Decreased physical and … Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Symptoms, Complaints, Signs

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Causes

Pathogenesis (disease development) Myelodysplastic syndrome disorders are clonal disorders of hematopoiesis (blood formation), meaning that there are qualitative and quantitative changes in hematopoiesis as well as peripheral cytopenia (decreased number of cells in the blood). The defect is in the pluripotent stem cell (stem cells that can differentiate into any cell type of an organism) … Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Causes

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Therapy

Supportive therapy Supportive therapy refers to measures that are used in a supportive manner. They are not intended to cure the disease, but to accelerate the healing process and alleviate symptoms. If there is a deficiency of erythrocytes (red blood cells) or platelets (thrombocytes) in the peripheral blood, blood transfusions may be considered: Transfusion of … Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Therapy

Esophageal Cancer: Medical History

Medical history (history of illness) represents an important component in the diagnosis of esophageal cancer (esophageal cancer). Family history Does your family have a history of frequent tumors or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract? Social history What is your profession? Current medical history/systemic history (somatic and psychological complaints). What changes have you noticed? Do you … Esophageal Cancer: Medical History

Esophageal Cancer: Or something else? Differential Diagnosis

Cardiovascular System (I00-I99). Coronary artery disease (CAD) – disease of the coronary arteries. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) Mouth, esophagus (food pipe), stomach, and intestines (K00-K67; K90-K93). Diffuse esophageal spasm – neuromuscular dysfunction of esophageal muscles with intermittent retrosternal (located behind the sternum) pain. Hypercontractile esophagus (nutcracker esophagus). Gastric ulcer (stomach ulcer) Esophagitis (inflammation of the … Esophageal Cancer: Or something else? Differential Diagnosis

Esophageal Cancer: Complications

The following are the major diseases or complications that may be contributed to by esophageal cancer (esophageal cancer): Respiratory system (J00-J99) Pneumonia (pneumonia) Fistulas between the respiratory and digestive tracts Neoplasms – tumor diseases (C00-D48). Early metastasis due to lack of serosal coating of the intrathoracic esophagus: Infiltration of adjacent structures Lymph nodes – including … Esophageal Cancer: Complications