Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Prevention

To prevent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), attention must be paid to reducing individual risk factors. Environmental exposures – Intoxications (poisonings). Long-term exposure (10-20 years) to toxic (poisonous) substances such as benzenes and also certain solvents – particularly affected are gas station attendants, painters and varnishers, and also airport attendants (kerosene).

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Symptoms, Complaints, Signs

The following symptoms and complaints may indicate myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): Symptoms due to cytopenia (decrease in the number of cells in the blood) (80%). Anemia symptoms (70-80%). Exertional dyspnea (shortness of breath during exertion). Exercise tachycardia (rapid heartbeat under stress). Paleness of the skin and mucous membranes Headache Tiredness and fatigue Dizziness Decreased physical and … Read more

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Causes

Pathogenesis (disease development) Myelodysplastic syndrome disorders are clonal disorders of hematopoiesis (blood formation), meaning that there are qualitative and quantitative changes in hematopoiesis as well as peripheral cytopenia (decreased number of cells in the blood). The defect is in the pluripotent stem cell (stem cells that can differentiate into any cell type of an organism) … Read more

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Therapy

Supportive therapy Supportive therapy refers to measures that are used in a supportive manner. They are not intended to cure the disease, but to accelerate the healing process and alleviate symptoms. If there is a deficiency of erythrocytes (red blood cells) or platelets (thrombocytes) in the peripheral blood, blood transfusions may be considered: Transfusion of … Read more


Neuroblastoma (ICD-10-GM C74.-: Malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland) is a malignant neoplasm (malignant neoplasm) of the autonomic nervous system. Neuroblastoma is the second most common malignant neoplasm in children behind acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sex ratio: girls and boys are affected with approximately equal frequency. Frequency peak: the disease occurs in childhood. In 90% … Read more

Neuroblastoma: Medical History

The medical history (history of the patient) represents an important component in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Family history Is there a frequent history of cancer in your family? Social history Current medical history/systemic history (somatic and psychological complaints). What symptoms have you noticed? How long have these changes existed? Does your child feel tired, weak? … Read more

Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Drug Therapy

Therapeutic targets Symptom relief Preservation and improvement of the quality of life Prolongation of survival time Therapy recommendations Therapy of low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. In the presence of low-grade cytopenia (decrease in cell count) and depending on age and comorbidities (concomitant diseases), it is sufficient to initially observe or wait (“watch and wait”) in these patients. … Read more

Esophageal Cancer: Drug Therapy

Therapeutic targets Cure or improvement of prognosis If necessary, also improvement of symptoms, reduction of tumor mass, palliative (palliative treatment). Therapy recommendations The most important therapeutic procedure for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma is surgery with the goal of complete removal of the tumor (oral, aboral, and circumferential) and regional lymph nodes. For localized adenocarcinomas … Read more

Esophageal Cancer: Surgical Therapy

Diagnostic laparoscopy may be performed for adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and esophagogastric (gastrointestinal) junction to exclude metastases to the liver and/or peritoneum (peritoneum) at advanced stages (especially in the case of a cT3- , cT4-category). The most important therapeutic procedure in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma is surgery with the aim of complete removal … Read more

Esophageal Cancer: Prevention

To prevent esophageal cancer (esophageal cancer), attention must be paid to reducing individual risk factors. Behavioral risk factors Diet Too little fish consumption; inverse correlation between fish consumption and risk of disease. Nitrosamine exposure Smoked and cured foods and foods high in nitrates and nitrites Nitrate is a potentially toxic compound: Nitrate is reduced to … Read more