Production of adrenaline: These stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced in the adrenal medulla and in nerve cells starting from the amino acid tyrosine. With the help of enzymes, this is first converted into L-DOPA (L-dihydroxy-phenylalanine). Then dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are produced enzymatically with the help of vitamins (C, B6), copper, folic acid and magnesium.
Adrenalin binds to so-called adrenergic receptors, which are cell surface receptors. Noradrenaline also has noradrenergic receptors belonging to the cell surface receptors. Regulation of adrenaline: The release of adrenaline is increased by nerve stimulation or other hormones (cortisol).
Production is inhibited by negative feedback at high adrenalin concentrations, which prevent the formation of the starting substance tyrosine. The degradation and thus the termination of the effect of adrenalin is carried out by the enzymes catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoaminooxidase (MAO). The end products are finally excreted in the urine.
The release of norepinephrine is promoted by stress through activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The effect is terminated by reabsorption of noradrenaline into the producing cells or its degradation to adrenaline or vanillin mandelic acid. The stress hormones adrenalin and noradrenalin have an effect on both metabolism and circulation.
In stressful situations, these hormones are able to activate the cardiovascular system by increasing the heart rate and blood pressure and expanding the pulmonary bronchi. As a result, physical performance is increased. In addition, under the influence of hormones, energy reserves are mobilized by means of sugar release (glucose), new sugar formation (gluconeogenesis) and fat breakdown (lipolysis) and supplied to the muscles through increased blood circulation.
The mobility (peristalsis) of the gastrointestinal tract is inhibited. In this way, the hormones as a whole should enable a rapid escape reaction in emergency situations. Noradrenaline is also an important neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline plays a subordinate role in this respect. Noradrenaline also has an analgesic effect.
Effect of adrenalin in the human body
The effect of adrenaline in the human body takes place at various different organ and body areas, where it fulfils its function as a stress hormone. Adrenaline performs its main tasks in the cardiovascular system. Within a few seconds, it can centralize the blood, raise blood pressure and thus provide blood reserves for a potential stress situation.
It binds to alpha1, beta1 and beta2 adrenoreceptors, which can cause different reactions depending on the organ area. Small vessels in peripheral areas of the body, for example the skin, contract while the large central blood vessels and those of the muscles expand. As a result, large amounts of blood are redistributed to increase the supply to the muscles.
The heart beats faster and stronger, which increases blood pressure and improves the supply to the heart. Via the same receptors, adrenaline also influences the gastrointestinal tract and respiration. Smooth muscles slacken under the influence of adrenaline.
As a result, the movement of the gastrointestinal tract and thus digestion is restricted. Smooth muscles also cause the bronchial tubes to contract less, which in turn makes breathing easier by widening the airways. In fat and muscle cells, adrenaline also influences the metabolism via the adrenal receptors.
The breakdown of fat is promoted and provides new energy reserves. The sugar content in the blood increases significantly through the increased build-up of sugar molecules and through the release of the hormone glucagon. The muscle can absorb and convert more energy reserves and thus increase its activity.
The adrenaline also triggers smaller reactions in the central nervous system, in the eye, on the skin and on various other organs, all of which correspond to the function of the stress hormone. Blood pressure is raised, central blood circulation is increased, muscles increase their basal metabolic rate and the overall activity of the body is increased within seconds after the release of the adrenalin. – Cardiovascular system
- Of breathing
- In the brain and i
- M fat and sugar metabolism of the cells.